Considering dietary recommendations 13 , the following findings are worrisome: among Mexican adolescents only one-third consumed fruits and vegetables daily, a little less than one-half consumed dairy products daily, one-third drank soft drinks daily, and one-fifth of Mexican adolescents consumed sweets and salty snacks. Although differences by gender have been reported for consumption of fruits, vegetables, dairy products, and red meat 21 , in Mexican adolescents the only difference was found with respect to legumes: males exhibited a higher consumption.
In Costa Rican adolescents, the same trend was observed 8 , while in adolescents from Scotland there were no differences NYS05 analysis showed that increased age was associated with more frequent consumption of dairy products. Food-associated meanings could explain these patterns: increased age and the adoption of certain social roles i. In Mexico, adolescents who studied and worked and those who neither studied nor worked consumed fruits, sweets, and salty snacks less frequently; those who neither studied nor worked consumed vegetables, cereals, dairy products, and white meat less frequently.
Adolescents who worked ate cereal, dairy products, and starchy vegetables less frequently. Similar patterns were observed in Irish adolescents These results could indicate that entering the labor market is related to the adoption of unhealthy eating habits, which could result from these adolescents having their own income, which allows them to consume meals prepared outside the home, which tend to have fewer nutrients and higher energy density 24, In Mexico, increased age of the head of household was positively related to adolescent fruit consumption as well as to lower consumption of starchy vegetables.
It is possible that as heads of household advance in age, they develop more child-rearing skills and are more concerned about healthy behaviors; thus, they tend to provide more food in the home that is perceived to be healthy. With regard to the latter, among Australian adults 26 , those aged between 35 and 49 years consumed more fruits, vegetables, and fish but fewer cereals, dairy products, meat, snacks, and sweets than the to year age group.
Considering that women more commonly adopt health-associated behaviors 16, 18, 27, 28 , we expected that adolescents from households headed by females would have higher consumption of foods such as fruits, vegetables, and milk and lower consumption of foods with high energy density. The lower consumption of dairy products observed in Mexican adolescents living in households headed by males supports this idea; nonetheless, these adolescents also consumed bread, soft drinks, sweets, and salty snacks less frequently.
A possible reason for this finding is that, in households headed by males, it is more likely that a woman i. On the other hand, when a female is the head of household, she is usually a single mother holding a salaried job, which limits her time for planning, buying, and preparing meals. Thus, female heads of household tend to purchase convenient and industrially processed food items.
In Mexican adolescents, consumption of fruits, vegetables, cereals, dairy products, starchy vegetables, bread, red meat, white meat, and fast food diminished with decreasing socioeconomic position; conversely, individuals in a low social position consumed legumes and soft drinks more frequently. It has been observed that Australian adults with low socioeconomic position consumed more legumes In adolescents in Northern, Southern, and Western European countries 15, 29 , soft-drink consumption was negatively related to socioeconomic position; the opposite was observed in Central and Eastern European countries There is no consistent pattern for the remaining foods.
In Finnish children and adolescents, there were no socioeconomic differences in consumption of meat and meat products In adolescents from two Chinese provinces, consumption of fruits, juices, milk, yogurt, and soft drinks was lower in the low socioeconomic group, although rice intake was higher; in addition, males with high socioeconomic position had higher consumption of shrimp, pork, hamburgers, and chocolate In Costa Rican adolescents, the parents' educational level was positively related to fruit and vegetable intake 9.
Socioeconomic differences regarding food consumption observed among Mexican adolescents could be partially attributed to food prices in the country: the least expensive products comprise sugar, oils, and cereals, followed by meat and canned fish, dairy products, vegetables, and fruits; the most expensive product is fresh seafood Although in Mexico the prices of beef and chicken, industrialized food which includes snacks , and food prepared outside the home have decreased over the past years, these products remain more expensive than others such as sugar and legumes.
Moreover, during the past decade the price of basic cereals, such as corn, has increased With NYS05 data, it was observed that the two indicators for socioeconomic position were independently associated with consumption of certain foods. In multivariate models, the head of household's education and the indicator based on household assets were positively associated with consumption of vegetables, cereals, dairy products, red meat, and fast food. This result supports the notion that each socioeconomic position indicator measures a different dimension of social stratification 37 ; therefore, they can be independently related to health behaviors.
Education is the cultural dimension indicator of socioeconomic stratification, while the household assets indicator reflects the wealth of the household. The head of household's education was negatively related to consumption of legumes; additionally, soft drink consumption was higher in the low and medium strata, as defined by the household-assets indicator, but it was lower in the high and very low socioeconomic strata.
This pattern cannot be explained by food prices, because legumes are inexpensive and therefore are accessible to individuals in the higher strata, while soft drinks in Mexico remain more expensive than other food types Bourdieu 27 stated that starchy foods such as cereals and legumes and those with high energy density are preferred by persons with low socioeconomic position because these foods have been symbolically associated with qualities such as physical strength. Compared with Mexican adolescents residing in urban localities, those living in rural areas consumed red meat, white meat, soft drinks, sweets, and salty snacks less frequently; adolescents from semiurban localities consumed starchy vegetables more frequently but fewer soft drinks.
These differences can be attributed to the fact that urbanization leads to a greater availability of food, especially industrially processed food products. In Chinese male adolescents, those residing in urban areas exhibited a higher intake of fruits, juice, milk, and yogurt; in Chinese female adolescents, differences were also observed in fruit and milk consumption, but the opposite pattern was observed for rice consumption in both genders and for vegetables in males In Costa Rican adolescents, those living in urban areas had a higher intake of vegetables but a lower intake of fruits 8.
In high-income countries, no clear patterns have been observed with respect to food consumption when comparing urban and rural localities 15, Compared with adolescents in Central Mexico, those residing in Northeastern and Central-Western Mexico consumed fast food more frequently. These regions are characterized as having greater economic development and more livestock; additionally, because of their geographic proximity to the United States, it may be implied that these are the first regions where fast food restaurants appeared.
On the other hand, adolescents in Central Mexico tended to consume more fruits, vegetables, dairy products, cereals, and bread. Mexico City is included in this region, where one-fifth of the Mexican population lives and where the country's most important food distribution centers are located. In Mexico, one-third of adolescents are overweight or obese 2 ; the regions with the highest rates are the North Our findings show that the frequency and distribution of consumption of food with high energy density are similar to the rates of overweight and obesity; the proportion of adolescents who daily ingested soft drinks, sweets, and salty snacks are Coincidentally, the North region is where more adolescents eat fast food.
This situation must translate in the design and execution of nutrition education programs focused on reducing the intake of food with high energy density, especially in the North and Mexico City. One limitation of this research comprises the dietary assessment instrument. This is due to the following: 1 The investigated food groups in the questionnaire were general; thus, a more detailed analysis concerning specific foods was not possible. Although the questionnaire did not allow us to know food consumption in grams, it did allow us to identify differences in consumption levels.
In addition, a strength of the investigation lies in that a probabilistic sample was interviewed, which makes it possible to obtain a general view of dietary habits in Mexican adolescents. The analysis allowed us to identify groups of adolescents with problematic food consumption: the youngest adolescents consumed milk less frequently; those who studied and worked and those who neither studied nor worked consumed fruits less frequently, and the group living in households headed by younger persons consumed less fruit.
In addition, those residing in households headed by females consumed more bread, soft drinks, sweets, and salty snacks; adolescents with low socioeconomic position consumed fruits, vegetables, and dairy products less frequently but drank soft drinks more frequently; groups considered in a high socioeconomic position consumed more fast food but consumed legumes less frequently; subjects living in urban areas consumed more soft drinks, sweets, and salty snacks, and those residing in Northeastern and Central-Western Mexico consumed more fast food.
Some of the observed results in the Mexican sample are similar to those reported by others, which confers higher validity to the conclusions obtained here. This knowledge can be used to design nutritional education programs. Nevertheless, it should be considered that certain differences in consumption can be the result of socioeconomic or cultural processes, which are difficult to modify. Finally, some of the proposed explanations for understanding the observed differences in food consumption require verification through qualitative research.
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Hearn, J. Boulder; London: Lynne Rienner, Herrera Jerez, M. Castillo Santana. Leiden; Boston: Brill, Hu-Dehart, E. Lee, 78— Klein, H. Kriesi, H. Snow, S. Soule, and H. Kriesi, 67— Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers, Another extracellular protease epr was discovered in the soft-shell turtle isolate A. In the rainbow trout isolate A.
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While four times less active than serine protease, the virulent A. Enolase, a secreted and surface-expressed glycolytic enzyme, was identified as a virulence factor in A. In general, lipases have diverse functions, but are linked with virulence in numerous pathogens Stehr et al.
An extracellular lipase EC3. Conversely, the heat-labile lipase Alt and the heat-stable lipase Ast are important cytotonic enterotoxins in the pathogenicity of A. Based on comparative genomics, Alt and Ast are core elements of A. Two additional lipases, phospholipase A1 pla and phospholipase C plc , were explored in A. The range of virulence factors encoded by A. The role of the adhesin minD in virulence is its ability to mediate mucosal adherence, increase biofilm formation, and facilitate cell division as well as motility Huang et al.
The enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimate 3-phosphate synthase encoded by aroA is required for folate availability and contributes to A. Another element of host evasion is the nuclease encoded by the ahn gene of A. Another conserved gene of A. Another virulence factor that is shown to increase host evasion for A. Another conserved virulence factor across all A. The introduction of virulence factors as well as their effects on the alternate regulation within Aeromonas spp.
Plasmids are a confirmed source of multidrug resistance in Aeromonas spp. Of note, while A. Results of numerous core genome phylogenies and average nucleotide identity analyses support the grouping of A. In Aeromonas spp. While there numerous virulence factors shared between members of A.
This inconsistency is illustrated by the highly virulent catfish isolate A. With that in mind, the thorough research conducted on A. Ashok Chopra, still holds relevance for A. To compare isolates of A. As of , few strains exist that have enough supporting data to facilitate comparative studies. There are many sources of uncertainty when comparing A. Future research should aim to couple typing techniques e. When considering known virulence factors, the definitive biological separation of A.
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