From Portales to Montt, 3. Authoritarians and moderates, ; 4. The liberal challenge, ; Part III.
Mid-Century Attitudes: 5. Progress and its instruments; 6. Political argument; 7. Model republic; 8. Looking outward; Part IV. Order and Liberty, 9. The Conservative defection, ; The triumph of liberty, ; Sources; Index. Customer Reviews Average Review. Be the first to write a review About this product.
Liberalism in Latin America
About this product Product Information Chile enjoyed unique prestige among the Spanish American republics of the nineteenth century for its stable and increasingly liberal political tradition. How did this unusual story unfold? The tradition was forged in serious and occasionally violent conflicts between the dominant Conservative Party, which governed in an often authoritarian manner from to , and the growing forces of political Liberalism.
This book examines the formative period of the republic's history and combines an analysis of the ideas and assumptions of the Chilean political class with a narrative of the political process from the consolidation of the Conservative regime in the s, to the beginnings of liberalization in the early s. The book is based on a comprehensive survey of the writings and speeches of politicians and the often rumbustious Chilean press of the period.
Additional Product Features Table of Content. Acknowledgments; Abbreviations used in the notes; Introduction; Part I. The New Republic, ' 1. The early republic: a sketch; 2. The conservative system; Part II. From Portales to Montt, ' 3.
Authoritarians and moderates, '; 4. The liberal challenge, '; Part III. Mid-Century Attitudes: 5. He asked Latin American intellectuals to search for their "intellectual emancipation" by abandoning all French ideas, claiming that France was: "Hypocrite, because she [France] calls herself protector of the Latin race just to subject it to her exploitation regime; treacherous, because she speaks of freedom and nationality, when, unable to conquer freedom for herself, she enslaves others instead!
However, in France the term Latin America was used with the opposite intention. It played a role in his campaign to imply cultural kinship of the region with France, transform France into a cultural and political leader of the area, and install Maximilian of Habsburg as emperor of the Second Mexican Empire. The distinction between Latin America and Anglo-America is a convention based on the predominant languages in the Americas by which Romance-language and English-speaking cultures are distinguished.
Neither area is culturally or linguistically homogeneous; in substantial portions of Latin America e. The term is not without controversy. Historian Mauricio Tenorio-Trillo explores at length the "allure and power" of the idea of Latin America. He remarks at the outset, "The idea of 'Latin America' ought to have vanished with the obsolescence of racial theory But it is not easy to declare something dead when it can hardly be said to have existed," going on to say, "The term is here to stay, and it is important.
Hispanic America with the inclusion of nations that according to him do not share the same pattern of conquest and colonization. Latin America can be subdivided into several subregions based on geography, politics, demographics and culture. If defined as all of the Americas south of the United States, the basic geographical subregions are North America , Central America , the Caribbean and South America ;  the latter contains further politico-geographical subdivisions such as the Southern Cone , the Guianas and the Andean states.
Its occupation dates to some 14, years ago and there is some disputed evidence of even earlier occupation. Over the course of millennia, people spread to all parts of the continents. By the first millennium CE , South America's vast rainforests, mountains, plains and coasts were the home of tens of millions of people. Some groups formed more permanent settlements such as the Chibcha or " Muisca " or "Muysca" and the Tairona groups. These groups are in the circum Caribbean region.
The Chibchas of Colombia , the Quechuas and Aymaras of Bolivia were the three indigenous groups that settled most permanently. The region was home to many indigenous peoples and advanced civilizations, including the Aztecs , Toltecs , Maya , and Inca.
The golden age of the Maya began about , with the last two great civilizations , the Aztecs and Incas, emerging into prominence later on in the early fourteenth century and mid-fifteenth centuries, respectively. The Aztec empire was ultimately the most powerful civilization known throughout the Americas, until its downfall in part by the Spanish invasion.
With the arrival of the Europeans following Christopher Columbus ' voyages, the indigenous elites, such as the Incas and Aztecs, lost power to the heavy European invasion. The European powers of Spain and Portugal colonized the region, which along with the rest of the uncolonized world, was divided into areas of Spanish and Portuguese control by the line of demarcation in , which gave Spain all areas to the west, and Portugal all areas to the east the Portuguese lands in South America subsequently becoming Brazil.
By the end of the sixteenth century Spain and Portugal had been joined by others, including France, in occupying large areas of North, Central and South America, ultimately extending from Alaska to the southern tips of the Patagonia. European culture, customs and government were introduced, with the Roman Catholic Church becoming the major economic and political power to overrule the traditional ways of the region, eventually becoming the only official religion of the Americas during this period.
Epidemics of diseases brought by the Europeans, such as smallpox and measles , wiped out a large portion of the indigenous population. Due to the lack of written records, specific numbers are hard to verify. Many of the survivors were forced to work in European plantations and mines. Intermixing between the indigenous peoples and the European colonists was very common, and, by the end of the colonial period , people of mixed ancestry mestizos formed majorities in several colonies.
Indigenous peoples of the Americas in various European colonies were forced to work in European plantations and mines; along with African slaves who were also introduced in the proceeding centuries.
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The Mita of Colonial Latin America was a system of forced labor imposed on the natives. First established by Viceroy Francisco de Toledo — , the Mita was upheld by laws that designated how large draft levies were and how much money the workers would receive that was based on how many shifts each individual worker performed. Toledo established Mitas at Potosi and Huancavelica, where the Mitayos—the workers—would be reduced in number to a fraction of how many were originally assigned before the s. While several villages managed to resist the Mita, others offered payment to colonial administrators as a way out.
In exchange, free labor became available through volunteers, though the Mita was kept in place as workers like miners, for example, were paid low wages. The Spanish Crown had not made any ruling on the Mita or approved of it when Toledo first established it in spite of the uncertainty of the practice since the Crown could have gained benefits from it. However, the cortes of Spain later abolished it in once complaints of the Mita violating humanitarian rights were made.
Yet complaints also came from: governors; landowners; native leaders known as Kurakas; and even priests, each of whom preferred other methods of economic exploitation. Despite its fall, the Mita made it to the s. Another important group of slaves to mention were the slaves brought over from Africa. The first slaves came over with Christopher Columbus from the very beginning on his earliest voyages. However in the few hundred years, the Atlantic Slave trade would begin delivering slaves, imported by Spain and other colonizers, by the millions.
Many of the large scale productions were run by forced slave labor. They were a part of sugar and coffee production, farming beans, rice, corn, fruit, etc. Slaves were also house workers, servants, military soldiers, and much more. To say the least these people were property and treated as such.
Though indigenous slaves existed, they were no match in quantity and lack of quality jobs when compared to the African slave. The slave population was massive compared to the better known slave ownership in the United States. Despite the large number of slaves in Latin America, there was not as much reproduction of slaves amongst the population.
Because most of the slaves then were African-born, they were more subject to rebellion. The United States involvement in the slave trade is well known amongst North America, however it hides a larger and in some ways crueler operation in the south which had a much longer history. In , Haiti became the first Latin American nation to gain independence, following a violent slave revolt led by Toussaint L'ouverture on the French colony of Saint-Domingue.
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The victors abolished slavery. Haitian independence inspired independence movements in Spanish America. By the end of the eighteenth century, Spanish and Portuguese power waned on the global scene as other European powers took their place, notably Britain and France. Resentment grew among the majority of the population in Latin America over the restrictions imposed by the Spanish government, as well as the dominance of native Spaniards Iberian-born Peninsulares in the major social and political institutions.
Napoleon 's invasion of Spain in marked a turning point, compelling Criollo elites to form juntas that advocated independence. Fighting soon broke out between juntas and the Spanish colonial authorities, with initial victories for the advocates of independence. Eventually, these early movements were crushed by the royalist troops by , including those of Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla in Mexico in the year Later on Francisco de Miranda in Venezuela by This First Mexican Empire was short-lived, and was followed by the creation of a republic in The Brazilian War of Independence , which had already began along other independent movements around the region, spread through northern, northeastern regions and in Cisplatina province.
As the new Emperor could not exert his constitutional powers until he became of age, a regency was set up by the National Assembly. During the last phase of the monarchy, an internal political debate was centered on the issue of slavery. The Atlantic slave trade was abandoned in ,  as a result of the British ' Aberdeen Act , but only in May after a long process of internal mobilization and debate for an ethical and legal dismantling of slavery in the country , was the institution formally abolished. On 15 November , worn out by years of economic stagnation, in attrition with the majority of Army officers, as well as with rural and financial elites for different reasons , the monarchy was overthrown by a military coup.
After the independence of many Latin American countries, there was a conflict between the people and the government, much of which can be reduced to the contrasting ideologies between liberalism and conservatism. Liberalists wanted to see a change in the ruling systems, and to move away from monarchs and social classes in order to promote equality. When liberal Guadalupe Victoria became the first president of Mexico in , conservatists relied on their belief that the state had been better off before the new government came into power, so, by comparison, the old government was better in the eyes of the Conservatives.
Following this sentiment, the conservatives pushed to take control of the government, and they succeeded. General Santa Anna was elected president in The following decade, the Mexican—American War —48 caused Mexico to lose a significant amount of territory to the United States. This loss led to a rebellion by the enraged liberal forces against the conservative government.
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The instability that followed the disintegration of the union led to the independence of the other Central American countries. In Brazil , rural aristocrats were in conflict with the urban conservatives. Portuguese control over Brazilian ports continued after Brazil's independence. Following the conservative idea that the old government was better, urbanites tended to support conservatism because more opportunities were available to them as a result of the Portuguese presence.
He led a military-controlled state. After the dissolution of Gran Colombia, New Grenada continued to have conflicts between conservatives and liberals. These conflicts were each concentrated in particular regions, with conservatives particularly in the southern mountains and the Valley of Cauca. In the mids some leaders in Caracas organized a liberal opposition. Antonio Leocadio Guzman was an active participant and journalist in this movement and gained much popularity among the people of Caracas.
In Argentina , the conflict manifested itself as a prolonged civil war between unitarianas i. Between and , the country existed as a confederation , without a head of state, although the federalist governor of Buenos Aires province, Juan Manuel de Rosas , was given the powers of debt payment and international relations and exerted a growing hegemony over the country.
A national constitution was only enacted in , reformed in , and the country reorganized as a federal republic led by a liberal-conservative elite. Losing most of its North American colonies at the end of the 18th century left Great Britain in need of new markets to supply resources in the early 19th century.
The British were able to capture large amounts of precious metals, before a French naval force intervened on behalf of the Spanish King and took down the invading force. However, this caused much turmoil in the area as militia took control of the area from the viceroy. The next year the British attacked once again with a much larger force attempting to reach and conquer Montevideo. As a result, the British were able to take control of the Indian markets. These improvements included roads and railroads which grew the trades between countries and outside nations such as Great Britain.
Between and , Mexico battled through various civil wars between the established Conservative government and the Liberal reformists "Mexico Timeline- Page 2 ". At this time the French government did not recognize Mexico as an independent entity. However, the constant state of warfare left Mexico with a tremendous amount of debt owed to Spain, England, and France, all of whom funded the Mexican war effort Neeno. However, Napoleon III, with intentions of establishing a French client state to further push his economic interests, pressured the other two powers to withdraw in Greenspan; "French Intervention in Mexico…".
The Battle of Puebla in in particular presented an important turning point in which Ignacio Zaragoza led the Mexican army to victory as they pushed back the French offensive "Timeline of the Mexican Revolution". The victory came to symbolize Mexico's power and national resolve against foreign occupancy and as a result delayed France's later attack on Mexico City for an entire year Cinco de Mayo Mexican History. The port city of Veracruz, Mexico and France's desire to construct a new canal were of particular interest. Bridging both New World and East Asian trade routes to the Atlantic were key to Napoleon III's economic goals to the mining of precious rocks and the expansion of France's textile industry.
Napoleon's fear of the United States' economic influence over the Pacific trade region, and in turn all New World economic activity, pushed France to intervene in Mexico under the pretense of collecting on Mexico's debt. Eventually France began plans to build the Panama Canal in until when the United States took over and proceeded with its construction and implementation "Read Our Story".
The doctrine warns European nations that the United States will no longer tolerate any new colonization of Latin American countries.
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It was originally drafted to meet the present major concerns, but eventually became the precept of U. The doctrine was put into effect in when the U. Some Latin American countries viewed the U. In , he traveled to Nicaragua hoping to overthrow the government and take the land for the United States. With only the aid of 56 followers, he was able to take over the city of Granada , declaring himself commander of the army and installing Patricio Rivas as a puppet president. However, Rivas's presidency ended when he fled Nicaragua; Walker rigged the following election to ensure that he became the next president.
His presidency did not last long, however, as he was met with much opposition from political groups in Nicaragua and neighbouring countries. On May 1, , Walker was forced by a coalition of Central American armies to surrender himself to a United States Navy officer who repatriated him and his followers. When Walker subsequently returned to Central America in , he was apprehended by the Honduran authorities and executed. The Mexican—American War , another instance of U.
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The main cause of the war was the United States' annexation of Texas in and a dispute afterwards about whether the border between Mexico and the United States ended where Mexico claimed, at the Nueces River , or ended where the United States claimed, at the Rio Grande. However, tensions between the two countries were still high and over the next six years things only got worse with raids along the border and attacks by Native Americans against Mexican citizens.
This would become known as the Gadsden Purchase. A critical component of U. In the late 19th century and early 20th century, the U. The companies gained leverage over the governments and a ruling elite in these countries by dominating their economies and paying kickbacks, and exploited local workers. These countries came to be called banana republics. A period of frequent U. After World War I, U. Roosevelt 's Good Neighbor policy in The proposal was intercepted and decoded by British intelligence. The revelation of the contents outraged the American public and swayed public opinion.
President Woodrow Wilson moved to arm American merchant ships in order to defend themselves against German submarines, which had started to attack them. The news helped generate support for the United States declaration of war on Germany in April of that year. The message came as a coded telegram dispatched by the Foreign Secretary of the German Empire, Arthur Zimmermann , on January 16, The message was sent to the German ambassador of Mexico, Heinrich von Eckardt.
Zimmermann sent the telegram in anticipation of the resumption of unrestricted submarine warfare by Germany on 1 February, an act which Germany presumed would lead to war. The telegram instructed Ambassador Eckardt that if the U. As part of the alliance, Germany would assist Mexico in reconquering Texas and the Southwest. Eckardt was instructed to urge Mexico to help broker an alliance between Germany and Japan.
Mexico, in the middle of the Mexican Revolution , far weaker militarily, economically and politically than the U. After World War I, in which Brazil was an ally of the United States , Great Britain , and France , the country realized it needed a more capable army but didn't have the technology to create it.
Their main goal was to contain the inner rebellions in Brazil. They tried to assist the army by bringing them up to the European military standard but constant civil missions did not prepare them for World War II. The immigrants held high positions in government and the armed forces. It was recently found that 9, war criminals escaped to South America, including Croats, Ukrainians, Russians and other western Europeans who aided the Nazi war machine. Most, perhaps as many as 5,, went to Argentina; between 1, and 2, are thought to have made it to Brazil; around to 1, to Chile; and the rest to Paraguay and Uruguay.
He even let German Luftwaffe build secret air forces around Brazil. This alliance with Germany became Brazil's second best trade alliance behind the United States. Brazil continued to try to remain neutral to the United States and Germany because it was trying to make sure it could continue to be a place of interest for both opposing countries.
Brazil attended continental meetings in Buenos Aires, Argentina ; Lima, Peru ; and Havana, Cuba that obligated them to agree to defend any part of the Americas if they were to be attacked. Eventually, Brazil decided to stop trading with Germany once Germany started attacking offshore trading ships resulting in Germany declaring a blockade against the Americas in the Atlantic Ocean.
Furthermore, Germany also ensured that they would be attacking the Americas soon. Roosevelt to discuss how they could retaliate. On January 22, , Brazil officially ended all relations with Germany, Japan, and Italy, becoming a part of the Allies. Brazil was the only Latin American country to send troops to Europe.
Initially, Brazil wanted to only provide resources and shelter for the war to have a chance of gaining a high postwar status but ended up sending 25, men to fight. There was a Nazi influence in certain parts of the region, but Jewish migration from Europe during the war continued. Only a few people recognized or knew about the Holocaust.
Even now, unexploded bombs from the second world war that need to be made safe still remain. The Great Depression caused Latin America to grow at a slow rate, separating it from leading industrial democracies. The two world wars and U. Depression also made Latin American countries favor internal economic development, leading Latin America to adopt the policy of import substitution industrialization. Brazil began selling automobiles to other countries, and some Latin American countries set up plants to assemble imported parts, letting other countries take advantage of Latin America's low labor costs.
Colombia began to export flowers, emeralds and coffee grains and gold, becoming the world's second-leading flower exporter. Economic integration was called for, to attain economies that could compete with the economies of the United States or Europe.
In efforts to help regain global economic strength, the U. Markets that were previously unopposed as a result of the war in Latin America grew stagnant as the rest of the world no longer needed their goods. Large countries like Argentina called for reforms to lessen the disparity of wealth between the rich and the poor, which has been a long problem in Latin America that stunted economic growth. Advances in public health caused an explosion of population growth, making it difficult to provide social services. Education expanded, and social security systems introduced, but benefits usually went to the middle class, not the poor.
As a result, the disparity of wealth increased. Increasing inflation and other factors caused countries to be unwilling to fund social development programs to help the poor. Bureaucratic authoritarianism was practised in Brazil after , in Argentina, and in Chile under Augusto Pinochet, in a response to harsh economic conditions. It rested on the conviction that no democracy could take the harsh measures to curb inflation, reassure investors, and quicken economic growth quickly and effectively.
Though inflation fell sharply, industrial production dropped with the decline of official protection. The US sought to stop the spread of communism. In , when Jacobo Arbenz of Guatemala accepted the support of communists and attacked holdings of the United Fruit Company , the US decided to assist Guatemalan counter-revolutionaries in overthrowing Arbenz. Latin America was more concerned with issues of economic development, while the United States focused on fighting communism, even though the presence of communism was small in Latin America.
By , Cuba was afflicted with a corrupt dictatorship under Batista, and Fidel Castro ousted Batista that year and set up the first communist state in the hemisphere. The United States imposed a trade embargo on Cuba, and combined with Castro's expropriation of private enterprises, this was detrimental to the Cuban economy. The United States put down these rebellions by supporting Latin American countries in their counter-guerrilla operations through the Alliance for Progress launched by President John F.
This thrust appeared to be successful. A Marxist, Salvador Allende, became president of Chile in , but was overthrown three years later in a military coup backed by the United States. Despite civil war, high crime and political instability, most Latin American countries eventually adopted bourgeois liberal democracies while Cuba maintained its socialist system. The Bay of Pigs invasion was an unsuccessful invasion of Cuba in , financed by the U. The incident proved to be very embarrassing for the new Kennedy administration. President John F. Kennedy initiated the Alliance for Progress in , to establish economic cooperation between the U.
Instead, the reform failed because of the simplistic theory that guided it and the lack of experienced American experts who could understand Latin American customs. Following the American occupation of Nicaragua in , as part of the Banana Wars , the Somoza family political dynasty came to power, and would rule Nicaragua until their ouster in during the Nicaraguan Revolution. The era of Somoza family rule was characterized by strong U.
The Revolution marked a significant period in Nicaraguan history and revealed the country as one of the major proxy war battlegrounds of the Cold War with the events in the country rising to international attention. Although the initial overthrow of the Somoza regime in —79 was a bloody affair, the Contra War of the s took the lives of tens of thousands of Nicaraguans and was the subject of fierce international debate. The set of specific economic policy prescriptions that were considered the "standard" reform package were promoted for crisis-wracked developing countries by Washington, D.
Other Latin countries with governments of the left, including Brazil, Mexico, Chile and Peru, have in practice adopted the bulk of the policies. Also critical of the policies as actually promoted by the International Monetary Fund have been some US economists, such as Joseph Stiglitz and Dani Rodrik , who have challenged what are sometimes described as the "fundamentalist" policies of the International Monetary Fund and the US Treasury for what Stiglitz calls a "one size fits all" treatment of individual economies.
The term has become associated with neoliberal policies in general and drawn into the broader debate over the expanding role of the free market, constraints upon the state, and US influence on other countries' national sovereignty. This politico-economical initiative was institutionalized in North America by NAFTA , and elsewhere in the Americas through a series of like agreements. The comprehensive Free Trade Area of the Americas project, however, was rejected by most South American countries at the 4th Summit of the Americas.