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Snotty UK street punk meets reverb-drenched goth rock on this UK band's demo, offering six bursts of caustic camp. Lapse by Colony. Denver hardcore upstarts storm out the gate with four down-tempo crushers: finely-marbled red meat for the circle-pit set. Puccini said that in Italian the name would be Turandotta. In the Venetian dialect of Carlo Gozzi the final syllables are usually dropped and words end in a consonant, ergo Turandott , as the name has been made Venetian. One of his longest and best stories derived from the history of Mongol princess Khutulun. In his adaptation, however, she bore the title Turandot, meaning "Turkish Daughter", the daughter of Kaidu.

In his more dramatic version, instead of wagering mere horses, the suitor had to forfeit his life if he failed to answer correctly. Fifty years later, the popular Italian playwright Carlo Gozzi made her story into a drama of a "tigerish woman" of "unrelenting pride".

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In a combined effort by two of the greatest literary talents of the era, Friedrich von Schiller translated the play into German as Turandot, Prinzessin von China , and Goethe directed it on the stage in Weimar in The plot respects the classical unities of time, space and action. Puccini first began working on Turandot in March after meeting with librettists Giuseppe Adami and Renato Simoni.

In his impatience he began composition in January before Adami and Simoni had even produced the text for the libretto. Puccini commissioned a set of 13 gongs constructed by the Tronci family specifically for Turandot. Decades later, percussionist Howard Van Hyning of the New York City Opera had been searching for a proper set of gongs and obtained the original set from the Stivanello Costume Company, which had acquired the gongs as the result of winning a bet.

In he bought the gongs for his collection, paying thousands of dollars for the set, which he described as having "colorful, intense, centered and perfumed" sound qualities. By March Puccini had completed the opera up to the final duet. However, he was unsatisfied with the text of the final duet, and did not continue until 8 October, when he chose Adami's fourth version of the duet text.

On 10 October he was diagnosed with throat cancer and on 24 November went to Brussels, Belgium, for treatment. There he underwent a new and experimental radiation therapy treatment. Puccini and his wife never knew how serious the cancer was, as the news was revealed only to his son.

Puccini, however, seems to have had some inkling of the possible seriousness of his condition since, before leaving for Brussels, he visited Toscanini and begged him, "Don't let my Turandot die". His step-daughter Fosca was in fact joyfully writing a letter to an English friend of the family, Sibyl Seligman, telling her that the cancer was shrinking when she was called to her father's bedside because of the heart attack.

When Puccini died, the first two of the three acts were fully composed, including orchestration. In the sense of finished music, this was the last music composed by Puccini. Some sketches were in the form of "piano-vocal" or "short score," including vocal lines with "two to four staves of accompaniment with occasional notes on orchestration. Puccini left instructions that Riccardo Zandonai should finish the opera.

Puccini's son Tonio objected, and eventually Franco Alfano was chosen to flesh out the sketches after Vincenzo Tommasini who had completed Boito 's Nerone after the composer's death and Pietro Mascagni were rejected. After the severe criticisms by Ricordi and the conductor Arturo Toscanini, he was forced to write a second, strictly censored version that followed Puccini's sketches more closely, to the point where he did not set some of Adami's text to music because Puccini had not indicated how he wanted it to sound.

Ricordi's real concern was not the quality of Alfano's work, but that he wanted the end of Turandot to sound as if it had been written by Puccini, and Alfano's editing had to be seamless.

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Of this version, about three minutes were cut for performance by Toscanini, and it is this shortened version that is usually performed. Rosa Raisa held the title role. Tenors Miguel Fleta and Franco Lo Giudice alternated in the role of Prince Calaf in the original production with Fleta singing the role on opening night. It was conducted by Arturo Toscanini. Toscanini stopped and laid down his baton.

The curtain was lowered slowly. These are the words reported by Eugenio Gara , who was present at the premiere. A newspaper report published the day before the premiere states that Puccini himself gave Toscanini the suggestion to stop the opera performance at the final notes composed by Puccini:. A few weeks before his death, after having made Toscanini listen to the opera, Puccini exclaimed: "If I don't succeed in finishing it, at this point someone will come to the footlights and will say: 'The author composed until here, and then he died.

Two authors believe that the second and subsequent performances of the La Scala season, which included the Alfano ending, were conducted by Ettore Panizza and Toscanini never conducted the opera again after the first performance. Turandot is a staple of the standard operatic repertoire and it appears as number 17 on the Operabase list of the most-performed operas worldwide.

For many years, the government of the People's Republic of China forbade performance of Turandot because they said it portrayed China and the Chinese unfavourably. It was an international collaboration, with director Zhang Yimou as choreographer and Zubin Mehta as conductor. As with Madama Butterfly , Puccini strove for a semblance of Asian authenticity at least to Western ears by using music from the region in question.

The debate over which version of the ending is better is still open. However, it may have been staged in Germany in the early years, since Ricordi had commissioned a German translation of the text and a number of scores were printed in Germany with the full final scene included. Alfano's second ending has been further redacted as well: Turandot's aria "Del primo pianto" was performed at the premiere but cut from the first complete recording; [ citation needed ] it was eventually restored to most performances of the opera.

From to the American composer Janet Maguire , convinced that the whole ending is coded in the sketches left by Puccini, composed a new ending, [27] but this has never been performed. However, its reception has been mixed. In China, beautiful Princess Turandot will only marry a suitor who can answer 3 secret riddles. A Mandarin announces the law of the land Aria — Popolo di Pechino!

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The Prince of Persia has failed to answer the three riddles, and he is to be beheaded at the next moonrising. As the crowd surges towards the gates of the palace, the imperial guards brutally repulse them, causing a blind old man to be knocked to the ground. A young man hears her cry and recognizes that the old man is his long-lost father, Timur, the deposed king of Tartary.

The young Prince of Tartary is overjoyed at seeing Timur alive, but still urges Timur to not speak his name because he is afraid that the Chinese rulers, who have conquered Tartary, may kill or harm them. The moon rises, and the crowd's cries for blood dissolve into silence. The doomed Prince of Persia, who is on his way to be executed, is led before the crowd. The young Prince is so handsome and kind that the crowd and the Prince of Tartary decide that they want Turandot to act compassionately, and they beg Turandot to appear and spare his life Aria — The crowd, Prince of Tartary: O giovinetto!

She then appears, and with a single imperious gesture, orders the execution to continue. The Prince of Tartary, who has never seen Turandot before, falls immediately in love with her, and joyfully cries out Turandot's name three times, foreshadowing the riddles to come. Then the Prince of Persia cries out one final time. The crowd, horrified, screams out one final time and the Prince of Persia is beheaded.

The Prince of Tartary is dazzled by Turandot's beauty. He is about to rush towards the gong and to strike it three times — the symbolic gesture of whoever wishes to attempt to solve the riddles so that he can marry Turandot — when the ministers Ping, Pang, and Pong appear.

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They urge him cynically to not lose his head for Turandot and to instead go back to his own country Fermo, che fai? Per l'ultima volta! For the last time! From the palace balcony, Turandot accepts his challenge, as Ping, Pang, and Pong laugh at the Prince's foolishness. Ping, Pang, and Pong lament their place as ministers, poring over palace documents and presiding over endless rituals.

Ping suddenly longs for his country house in Honan , with its small lake surrounded by bamboo. Pong remembers his grove of forests near Tsiang, and Pang recalls his gardens near Kiu. They turn their thoughts back to how they have been accompanying young princes to their deaths. As the palace trumpet sounds, the ministers ready themselves for another spectacle as they await the entrance of their Emperor. The Emperor Altoum, father of Turandot, sits on his grand throne in his palace.

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Weary of having to judge his isolated daughter's sport, he urges the Prince to withdraw his challenge, but the Prince refuses Aria — Altoum, the Prince: Un giuramento atroce — "An atrocious oath". Turandot enters and explains In questa reggia — "In this palace" that her ancestress of millennia past, Princess Lo-u-Ling, reigned over her kingdom "in silence and joy, resisting the harsh domination of men" until she was raped and murdered by an invading foreign prince.

Turandot claims that Lo-u-Ling now lives in her, and out of revenge, Turandot has sworn to never let any man wed her. She warns the Prince to withdraw but again he refuses. The Princess presents her first riddle: Straniero, ascolta! Turandot is shaken. The crowd cheers the Prince, provoking Turandot's anger. She presents her third riddle Gelo che ti da foco — "What is ice which gives you fire and which your fire freezes still more? He proclaims, "It is Turandot! The crowd cheers for the triumphant Prince. Turandot throws herself at her father's feet and pleads with him not to leave her to the Prince's mercy.

She cries out in despair, "Will you take me by force? Mi porterai con la forza? The Prince stops her, saying that he has a riddle for her: Tre enigmi m'hai proposto — "You do not know my name. Tell me my name before sunrise, and at dawn, I will die. The Emperor then declares that he hopes that he will be able to call the Prince his son when the sun next rises.

In the distance, heralds call out Turandot's command: Cosi comanda Turandot — "This night, none shall sleep in Peking! The penalty for all will be death if the Prince's name is not discovered by morning". The Prince waits for dawn and anticipates his victory: Nessun dorma — "Nobody shall sleep! Ping, Pong, and Pang appear and offer the Prince women and riches if he will only give up Turandot Tu che guardi le stelle , but he refuses. They have been seen speaking to the Prince, so they must know his name. The Prince feigns ignorance, saying they know nothing.

As she staggers towards the Prince and falls dead, the crowd screams for her to speak the Prince's name.