Logic Algebra (Second Edition)

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Heute beliefert Gebr.

Ausgebildet als Dipl. Translation - French Immeuble de bureaux de Gebr. Heinemann, Hambourg Projet : immeuble de bureaux Gebr. Actuellement, Gebr. Dans le nouveau plateau de bureaux du centre logistique de Gebr. Die Land-karte von Athosland hat mittlerweile riesige Dimensionen angenommen und wird von hunder-ten von Stadt- und Landschaftsansichten komplettiert. Das ist allerdings mit hohem Einarbeitungsaufwand verbunden. Landschaftsgestaltung ist aber auch generell im Schulunterricht zu thematisieren.

Dreissig Neuproduktionen gehen aus diesen Joint Ventures hervor. Was macht meine Arbeit gleichzeitig aus mir? Die Juni bis Die Manifesta reagiert mit jeder Ausgabe auf die Vielfalt sozialer, politischer und geografischer Bedingungen im heutigen Europa. Sein Gastgeber, Dr. Damit stellt sich die Frage: Was kostet uns die Gesundheit? Wo positioniert er sich, wo wird er instrumentalisiert? Die von Francesca Gavin co-kuratierte Show gliedert sich in elf Themenkammern.

Alle Kunstinteressierten — ungeachtet ihres Alters, ihrer Erfahrung und ihres Wissensstandes in Sachen Kunst — sind zum Dialog eingeladen. Als wesentlichen Bestandteil dieses Schaufensters haben sich an jeder Manifesta-Ausgabe die Parallel Events etabliert. Ich freue mich, an den Parallel Events diese bunte Kunstlandschaft zu erleben. Der Ort soll mit seiner Magie zur Inspirationsquelle werden, aus welcher viele eigene, kleine Kunstwerke entstehen. Pour la Manifesta 11, elle initie une rencontre entre des travailleuses du sexe transsexuelles de Zurich et de Juarez, Mexique.

Des cours hebdomadaires d'initiation et de perfectionnement transmettent l'artisanat de la photographie analogique et lui redonnent vie. I had seen drawings and photographs of it in a publication. From the perspective of the London architecture scene which then was my own, the project seemed familiar. It recalled the Sugden House by Alison and Peter Smithson, a project which made a virtue of its modest suburban circumstances.

Moreover the project resorted to a method of composition loosely described as organic, bringing to mind the complex houses built by Hans Scharoun in the s. But in the late s the reality of the Braekman-Staels house struck me as different. References to buildings from the past were less obvious than I had anticipated. Indeed none imposed itself.

What had seemed postmodern and organic was absorbed in a spatial play of striking virtuosity, evident notably in the complex sections of the house.

Deutschland – noch immer die gute Samariterin? Marshallplan mit Afrika

In less gifted hands, such play would manifest itself in spaces drawing attention to themselves. But in the house, it produced no memorable vignettes, no viewpoint from where to enjoy the spectacular character of the design. The house does not lend itself easily to description. To this day, I cannot reconstruct in my mind the configuration of its spaces or the sequence of its rooms. Yet — and this is the crucial point — few houses that I have visited wear their design more lightly.

Nothing seemed forced - nothing is forced. No part demands attention. Rather it is the whole house that is remembered for its unique atmosphere. The key to this seems to be a spontaneous empathy on the part of its architects with their clients, and it is allowed to prevail over the desire to make an architectural statement. In this, as I vividly remember, de Smet and Vermeulen stood out among their contemporaries. But make no mistake. Indeed it still feels to me as being especially profound and it is for this reason that it cannot be clearly referenced in the architecture itself.

True culture seldom reveals itself fully to consciousness in the objects which it informs. Culture clearly matters to de Smet and Vermeulen, but civility matters even more. Dialogue, understanding and empathy are key. There is no sudden shift prompted by changes in fashion, no caprice designed to draw the attention of the media. Commissions are not pretexts for experiments. Rather experiments are prompted and justified by commissions. De Smet and Vermeulen are not mavericks. They are acutely sensitive, strikingly modest and make long-term commitments. In the best sense of the term, their approach is marked by a quality of innocence.

But whereas this quality sought today by some younger architects is demonstrated by them in the pure forms of their designs, de Smet and Vermeulen do not insist on the latter. Architecture is a conflicted profession. It is rooted in society and in the tortuous processes which sustain it and maintain its cohesion. It is the result of a protracted dialogue and it shall only be pure to the extent that this dialogue can be made meaningful and transparent. Rien ne semble contraint — rien n'est contraint. Source text - English Seite 2 dukta flexible wood ist ein einzigartiges Einschneideverfahren, welches Holz und Holzwerkstoffe flexibel macht.

Besonders interessant ist dabei die hohe schallabsorbierende Wirkung des perforierten Holzwerkstoffs. Das int. Die einseitig oder zweiseitig eingeschnittenen Holzwerkstoffplatten bieten durch ihre Biegbarkeit und Transparenz einen grossen Gestaltungsspielraum. Die von Lebewesen erzeugte Infrarotstrahlung ist nicht homogen, was unter Verwendung einer Infrarotkamera deutlich sichtbar wird. Passiv-Infrarot bedeutet, dass die Sensoren keine Strahlung aussenden, sondern empfangen.

Die Strahlung muss also beim Sensor ankommen, damit eine Bewegung erkannt werden kann. Der Sensor reagiert auf Differenzen. Bei einer Bewegung tangential zum Melder werden mehr Sektoren durchquert als bei einer Bewegung frontal auf den Melder zu. Findet Bewegung nur innerhalb eines Sektors statt, erkennt der Melder diese nicht. Moderne Melder besitzen neben einer engmaschigen Linse und einer guten Auswertungseinheit nicht nur einen, sondern mehrere Sensoren.

Jedoch halten sich nur in Teilbereichen des Lagers Personen auf, so dass Licht nur in diesen Bereichen in ausreichender Menge vorhanden sein muss. Hier wird warme, dicke Kleidung getragen. Entsprechend schwer erkennt ein Melder eine Bewegung.

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In Lagerhallen bewegen sich nicht nur Menschen, sondern auch Maschinen. Wird der Melder mittig in den Nebengang montiert, kann es sein, dass sein Erfassungsbereich bis in den Hauptgang reicht. Der Erfassungsbereich sollte mittels Blinds an die Gegebenheiten angepasst werden. Der Melder misst das vom Boden reflektierte Licht. Liegt der gemessene Lichtwert unter dem eingestellten Lichtwert, schaltet der Melder das Licht ein und regelt es auf den eingestellten Wert, so dass im Raum immer eine konstante Helligkeit vorhanden ist.

Le rayonnement infrarouge est avant tout un rayonnement thermique. Elle sera d'environ 6 m en cas de port de casques de protection. Dieser war als Polizist Teil der nachgestellten geheimen Aktion auf dem Mittelmeer. In der Nacht vom Mai auf den 1. Die Aktionen wurden filmisch festgehalten und von einem bekannten Sportjournalisten live kommentiert. In Mesa y dos bancos wurden die Spuren der Opfer dem Werk einverleibt. Was wurde mit ihnen beraten und verhandelt? Wo zeigt sich die Handschrift der afrikanischen Akteure, Unternehmen, Regierungen und der Zivilgesellschaft?

Von diesen Institutionen stammen herausragende Konzepte zur Bereinigung der strukturellen Krisen, die sich teilweise deutlich von denen des Marshallplans unterscheiden. Vor allem Frankreich, die USA und China verfolgen vorwiegend geostrategische Ziele, die wenig geeignet sind, in Afrika das Wachstum zu beschleunigen, Jobs zu schaffen und die Armut zu reduzieren. Financial Times Ltd, fDi Markets www. Februar Deutschlands Kooperationskonzeption scheint auf den ersten Blick anders zu sein als die der genannten Staaten.

Aber dies ist nur die eine Seite der Medaille. So haben ca. Dies marginalisiert vor allem die afrikanische Landwirtschaft und die Armen. Ihre Fonds sollten durch den Westen aufgestockt werden, anstatt mehr Gelder in die Weltbank und andere Washingtoner Institutionen zu transferieren Kappel, Pfeiffer und Reisen Sie haben es besonders schwer, sich angesichts des globalen Wettbewerbs, des schnellen technologischen Wandels, der Roboterisierung und der globalen Nachfrageverschiebungen hin zu Dienstleistungen zu industrialisieren.

Afrikanische Unternehmen produzieren heute nicht mehr hinter Schutzmauern im eigenen Land, sondern stehen im Wettbewerb mit Produzenten aus aller Welt. Ihre finanzielle Ausstattung ist jedoch meist gering. Im Marshallplan sind diese eher schwammig formuliert. Dies deutet darauf hin, dass die eigene grundlegende wertebasierte Konzeption nicht durchgehalten wird.

Zweifel sind auf jeden Fall angebracht. Mitnahmeeffekte sollten vermieden werden. Deutschland bedarf eines neuen Ansatzes in der Kooperation mit Afrika. Dies ist die Botschaft des Marshallplans. Doch der Differenzierung des Kontinents wird nur wenig Beachtung geschenkt. Zusammengefasst bedeutet das, dass je nach Stand der Entwicklung sehr unterschiedliche Kooperationsagenden zum Tragen kommen.

The in their argumentation as well as in their decisions. They constant danger is that they will overlook or overestimate try above all to avoid making wrong decisions, especially something, regarding a serious case of abuse as an acci- with respect to expressing suspicions toward the parents.

If emotional suffering is mentioned in the records family situation and especially the living arrangements. In the material confirm or disprove the suspicion of abuse. Their classifications were in part only ing minors through their developmental phases; on the implicitly distinguishable for example, in the positions other hand, it serves to sensitize parents to the needs communicated to the courts or in the type of interven- of their children.

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One caseworker made a note of this tion chosen. Case 7. In the next needs. What we see less of in the documentation is section we summarize the characterizations of children the goal of acting upon the life situation or milieu of and adolescents in which the caseworkers put the central the children to ensure a long-term fulfillment of their needs of the children and adolescents at the forefront of needs.

Sometimes it would appear that the caseworkers their considerations. In five of the ten case records we studied we determined In addition, attention is paid to the needs that are on the basis of the documentation that the caseworkers conspicuous and visible for all to see. In the cases stud- were particularly interested in the needs of the children ied, the caseworkers are apparently concerned more and adolescents. One of the central For example, in the assessment of whether a 2-year-old motifs is the proper and sustained development of the child should live with her father, the criterion discussed child.

In other cases, a certain 3. In another case the physical contact. An excep- is not suited for the birth of a further child. The house- assess them from their own viewpoint. Both were considered prerequisites for meeting different perspective than adults. We divide this type into the needs of the child. In light The Child as Deviant Actor of the challenges of modern child-welfare routines, it is When children and adolescents were described in the case certainly not easy for the responsible person s to en- records studied as actors, in three cases this occurred in sure that the needs of children and adolescents are ful- the form of a description of their demonstrating disrup- filled despite unfavorable circumstances.

The casework- tive actions or behaviors, in particular with respect to er involved in Case 6 openly questions whether the child their behaviors in school.

Developmental

Checklist of Behavioral Abnormalities, Case overlaps in the two types. What is common to both 7, Appendix 1. In another case, the caseworker noted types is that children and adolescents are considered to that an adolescent girl had insulted her teacher and was be objects of adult concern, even if the characterization otherwise acting brashly. The impression of the teacher is of these needs often remains very general in nature. The opposite thereof is the child dren require close and consistent control to ensure their as actor.

The helplessness in child-welfare processes as actors, as distilled from the caused by this behavior becomes clear in the following case records studied. Her caring attitude toward her sister is interpreted as an The Child as Resilient Actor adult-like — an unchild-like — behavior. We discovered this characterization in ports her sister in play situations. Resilience-based ap- up.


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She bears the responsibility for her younger sibling as proaches are concerned with the question of how children well as for her mother. Especially X. In the secondary literature, sponsibility that they are overwhelmed and endangered. Ebersold, ; also Rose, According to this suming responsibility for herself and her sister.

Wolff, a. In one of our case having to replace or be misused as their own mother records behavior that could have been interpreted as resil- or father. On the other hand, they run the danger of dis- ient behavior was in fact construed by the caseworker as criminating and regulating the resilient behavior of mi- problematic behavior. Bauriedl, hood is considered a period in which the child has little as well as the ability to cope with a paradox ibid. This idea of two different their resilient behavior.

Davis, Pluto wrote mother if he is aware of the risks involved. The case- in this regard that social workers see the competence of worker thus characterizes the adolescent as an actor who children and adolescents as a danger to their own com- weighs risks and interests against each other and then petence. This tendency is present in Case 9 of our study: makes his own decision.

This gives her control of the situation and makes not the least in order to guarantee greater participation her feel superior and strong. She in turn makes demands cf. Hill et al. Her shouting and crying are not simply ily. Yet, also the responsible case- the context of the family. This observation agrees with worker from the Youth Welfare Department then repeats the results from international research describing how verbatim excerpts of the reports of this organization in children are often depicted in child-protection processes her own notes and uses the concept of the child as an as reacting only within their relationship to their par- actor to characterize the adolescent we describe below.

In the case in question mother and enjoys her attention, though if need be he here, the caseworker preparing the documentation con- does take risks to assert his short-term, spontaneous cludes with a comment very typical for this pattern, to interests. This passage con- We interpret the fact that children and adolescents tains a number of references to children and adolescents are seen as actors only with respect to their own family being actors, something not found in the other case as a confirmation of the conception that children and records.

But she also said she wanted the father to stay to the forefront than other characterizations. But we also think that such a char- stymied the girl from structuring the further course of acterization must extend to beyond the family proper. The worried teacher informed a colleague The next section is devoted to such a characterization as and the Regional Social Services Office of the local Child we found it at least partially in the case records.

Welfare Department — without informing the girl of her actions. The caseworkers of the Child Welfare Deartment The Child as Protagonist were also very worried, especially that the presumed mo- In the newest literature on childhood it is assumed that lestation on the part of the father might continue una- children and adolescents are actors not only within bated. Following many consultations with teachers, and adolescents may develop on their own. According own, of changing their own life circumstances either to the case record, the decision was then made by the re- individually or collectively in a process of self-organ- sponsible person from the Child Welfare Department to ization cf.

Liebel, Robin, At In the material we studied only one case record con- this juncture those responsible at the Department com- tained aspects of such a characterization of the child menced official legal proceedings at the Family Court as an active agent toward the professional caseworkers with the goal of withdrawing parental custody of the and toward the helping process itself. None of the oth- girl. To prove the latter statement, she agreed to process to its conclusion. Indeed, it would appear that a gynecological examination, which showed that at the often the children and adolescents in the case records time of the exam her hymen was still intact.

This fact was in question participated in the service planning confer- taken into consideration in the negotiations on exclud- ences but that they had no say in how the case was re- ing the possibility of rape. This is, in any event, the only case of active on her own: Z. This is certainly due to the means and struc- clearly formulated her wishes and needs with respect to tures under which the caseworkers have to work, which further actions or interventions.

Quite in contrast, only a few weeks later the intentions and goals are being misunderstood or misin- responsible caseworker in the Child Welfare Depart- terpreted by the professionals involved cf. There is no sition of child-protection case records: More emphasis is hint in the case record that Z. This tendency is also present in the records bing going on at school or the court experiences. In any case, they de- hands — despite their good intentions. The case- is stated in Case 4 p.

This wording would seem to workers, too, come to this conclusion, to judge from the demonstrate that a decision was made and an accord record at our disposal: They describe the case as prob- was struck with which both parties were satisfied. We may assume that such a scenario even if pres- P. On role in everyday child-protection practices: The efforts the one hand, there are some references in the researched of children to get help on their own and to be involved material that seem to point to the fact that the participa- in how that help is being provided is not or cannot be tion of children and adolescents has become normative always adequately addressed by the professional case- in child-protection work.

Yet, the characterizations of the 4 The family in question here had another adolescent girl whose perspective we could not take up here. For example, they may demand that participation. Whenever minors are depicted as victims the views of the participants on the familial situation and or as objects of adult concern — or when they are con- on the needs to receive help be noted, even supplying a strued solely as actors within their families — then their table where the perspectives of all participants parents, chance of participating fully in child-protection process- children, caseworkers, other professionals can be filled in.

Different municipalities of course have very different practices. The case records also show that changes The data material at our disposal also shows that the take place over time: In one record a form was used at the emphasis in the description of participation lies in the beginning which included space for noting the viewpoints organizational practices of planning the helping process.

The rules of the processes, There are also major differences in the documents with respect to the place, time and content, are all con- used to plan the intervention. Some assistance plans trolled by the professionals involved. Cruikshank, ; Often the more differentiated sheets remain empty or the Baistow, In a newer study, the researchers of the various standpoints are not in fact differentiated.

The reports of ers and the clients the possibility of implementing partic- the caseworkers from charitable and nonprofit organiza- ipation — even in child-protection cases. And both sides tions tend to present the perspectives of the children and stand to profit from a better cooperation and a richer mu- adolescents in greater detail, reporting on the needs, ex- tual understanding. In the documents and forms we stud- periences, wishes and resources as well as the weaknesses ied on intervention planning we found major differences of the children and adolescents.

This method of directly in what the documents demand of the caseworkers. Some addressing the experiences of the young actors in ques- documents reserve much space for depicting the position tion can be interpreted as a sort of participation in the as- of the respective participants. The viewpoints of the par- sistance process, albeit a weak one. Oth- they have in the end on the entire process. The differences er documents are concerned only with very general goals between the presentations of the caseworkers from mu- and assessments, without concern for the standpoints of nicipal Child Welfare Offices and those from charitable the individuals.

Internationally, this obligation izational practices and contexts. The official documents is anchored in Article 12 of the UN Convention on the for intervention measures by caseworkers in the Child Rights of the Child. The obligation to allow children and Welfare Offices generally provide less leeway to record the adolescents to participate in accordance with these legal perspectives of the children and adolescents.

Sometimes statutes represents a challenge to social work in general only two pages are reserved for this information. Also, the as it means questioning and reorganizing all practices — amount of time allotted to the professionals in the public as well as reshuffling professional identities and attitudes agencies to meet with the minor actors is strictly limited cf.

Krappmann, ; Pluto, e. It is not compared with that of their colleagues outside the offi- only a matter of rights, but also of determining the legal, cial channels. This gives them fewer occasions to come to professional and practical means of implementation cf. In all other cases con- respective standpoint cf. The material we tion and in the planning of the helping process. The reason looked at, in any case, includes no references that would for this lies in a view of childhood that strictly deline- have allowed methodologically or conceptually struc- ates the worlds of children and adults.

As noted above, tured approaches cf. And to enable their participation. This is evident in the de- its conclusion. This form of participation is lescents in all decisions that affect them. Rather, they are re- not want. An example may be found in one of the caseworker, even though the child did not agree record where it is stated that the child was questioned with how the caseworker had interpreted her statements.

Her father uses bad words which the child was present] it became clear that it was and drinks too much beer. Although the later removal of the hand of Mr. X toward her. This pas- are indications in the documentation that the child actu- sage reveals a mixture of child-like and adult casework- ally opposed the decision of the caseworker, felt sad about er vocabulary. Thus, the child is nominally included in the process her familial situation. Archard and Skivenes emphasize would rather talk more directly and concretely about the that it is extremely important that children and adoles- situation and possible solutions cf.

If that is not the case, it can even lead to a greater records. When they are noted, it is usually in reference to vulnerability of the children and adolescents in question: the desires of the children and adolescents for their future It can frustrate them and rob them of their motivation or their leisure activities cf. Case 4 and Case 5 , but not to even want to participate in subsequent situations. One concerning how the assistance measures could be crafted.

What is problematic is the fact that the helping measures. In none of the case records was there the girl did not actually receive any direct assistance in a note about what the children and adolescents thought asserting her wish to have the father stop his advances, about the course of the helping process. Overall, the par- which she considered unpleasant. And when participation reproduces her emotional situation. However, the perspective of the children and ad- their own statements — even then the effects on the overall olescents living in the family plays only a minor role in process are minimal cf.

In fact, they This points to a discrepancy between the observations exist only in the story told by the mother. That we learn and the opinions expressed in the case assessment, and in nothing directly of the perspective of the children shows the intervention planning.

In the latter, power and con- that the caseworker is prioritizing the parental perspec- trol play major roles.

The statements that occur during tive, leaving empathy for the perspective of the children the intervention process are weighted very differently, and adolescents to the professionals from out patient or and the process as such is dominated by the adults, that home-care services that are generally more attentive to is, by the professionals involved and by the parents cf.

Since the field interviews welfare. After all, the parents represent the ones making in child-protection cases are generally held with adults, the requests and signing the application forms, the ones either parents or professionals, the viewpoints of children accepting or refusing assistance, the ones providing the and adolescents hold lower communicative relevance cf. Sometimes we even had the impression that the case- The case records reveal that direct conversations are workers were overwhelmed by the information coming held primarily with the parents.

There are also extensive their way from the parents when recording them verba- descriptions of their perspective on the familial and sup- tim. Even just a few decades ago how the problems Life has been rough for her recently, having had to bring were defined was the exclusive domain of the profession- the children along to the shelter.

A few days later the the case. Wolff, R. Yet, the vantage point ing. This may but nothing else was possible. She custodial responsibility for the child. For the caseworker needs to search for a new place to live, presumably in O. Participation speak for the perspective of their child. Their willingness is always realized in conflictuous tensions of professional to assume responsibility is considered by the Child Wel- and generational power relationships.

In these contexts, fare Office to be a positive move. Joint custody should re- the children and adolescents have the weaker position, main in force. We spoke with Mr. It also becomes clear that Participation in child protection is thus in the end where meetings take place, how they are conducted and also a matter of dealing with existing intergenerational who is present lies mainly in the domain of the responsi- power relations, reflected in the preference for the par- ble professional workers. This aspect must be taken into account The results of our study are supported by a recent in child-protection cases because children, who are in- evaluation study from England.

The English Office for herently in a disparate power position cf. Metzger, This study Ofsted, , p. Our study to protect the child. These profiles of childhood and adolescence leave the parents may be of interest, then later the perspective little room for the children and adolescents themselves of the other parent takes center stage — or that of other to assess the situation or to enter the spheres otherwise professionals involved become important for the assess- occupied by adults. This is particularly the case concern- ment of the case.

Thus, we see that, when managing the ing what type of assistance is offered in a specific case, case, the caseworkers find it difficult to keep all the con- and how and by whom and in what form that assistance tributing perspectives aligned. This is true particularly should be implemented. How a certain case is viewed may then become to ascribe the passive characterizations of children and colored by the interpretations of the respective dominant adolescents to professional or personal failings on the alliance, causing all other perspectives to simply disap- part of the specialists involved.

Rather, organizational pear. Especially the perspectives of the children, but also research can show that the systemic culture is tinctured those of the fathers cf. Case 9 and Case 10 , are lost or with organizational sensemaking and that this is the main receive little regard in the light of such shifts in attention. Luhmann, ; Weick, But our study of the materials also shows the follow- What we can say is that the organizational frame ing: Participation in situations of persistent inequality is co-determining how parents, children and adolescents inevitably leads to a hardening of one-sided opinions.

In light of the normative and legal pressure to of the respective institution. The professionals involved, as our analysis This context also played a role in our study of the shows, no longer know whether they should take the role characterizations of children and adolescents in the case as observing and assessing experts or whether they should records. In the light of our study, and documenting the various standpoints of the involved we may draw the conclusion to ask how institutional and actors but not for reflectively comparing, connecting or organizational contexts could be given the necessary sup- otherwise judging these standpoints.

Thus, it is also and above all of major professional approaches, actions and identities. Enabling importance whether we can change the sensemaking the participation of children and adolescents means in- processes in organizational contexts so that children and itiating a mutual learning process: Especially the pro- adolescents can be seen and addressed as self-determined, fessionals have to learn to share power with others cf. Frankford, On the other hand, increasing the par- ticipation of minors does not necessarily mean a loss of power of the professionals; rather, participation in matters of child protection carries the potential of strengthening both sides — the professionals and the minors cf.

Not the least, our analysis revealed organization- al problems in child-protection systems and their set- tings. Also, children and ado- experiences of practitioners of child protection: lescents are not or only marginally included in research on child abuse and child protection as well cf.

But the research results also suggest that it is not at 2. Reflect on your own experiences when you were a all easy to implement the participation of children and child. A high level of dedication 3. Adapt all support avenues to the needs of children is demanded of all persons involved if this goal is to be and adolescents. Create a child- and adolescent-friendly atmosphere. Make contact with children and adolescents; observe the professionals involved […] And because it confronts them and speak with them directly. Explore together with the children and adolescents been present in their lives up to that point, and that they their development as well as their personal situation have not previously learned to cope with, participation and perspective.

Allow children and adolescents to participate in the Participation can be realized only in a bilateral pro- planning of an intervention and in the further course cess of adaptation: On the one hand, the children and of the assistance measure. Evaluate together with the children and adolescents pating in an intervention process; they must be willing the results of the intervention process.

Regard the participation of children and adolescents own behalf. On the other hand, the professional person- as a key management task. Implement the study of the participation of children sibility and the demands necessary in order to adapt the and adolescents in child protection during academic intervention processes to the needs and potentials of chil- studies and further education and training. Yet, in the scope of this re- participation. Not just the competences of the children, search report, it is already possible to sketch out a number but also of the adults involved must be strengthened so of steps that can be taken for better involving children and that they are better in the position to enable the partic- adolescents in the helping process.

Rosenfeld, Respect the children and adolescents and above all they must learn to share their power with them treat them as equals Frankford, If the adults do take the time and de- Since the early days of modern child-protection efforts velop the competences necessary to including minors, the primary attitude toward an abused or neglected child then the children and adolescents will be in a better po- was that of the child as victim, the object of compassion sition to explain their problems and needs to the adults or pity, coupled with the impulse to protect or save him and to take part in the intervention processes Bannister, or her.

Often professionals who deal with cases involving The perpetrators are also heavily involved the past, therefore belongs to the basic themes in any in this process, since they tend to marginalize the chil- psychological or psychoanalytic support or supervision dren and adolescents or limit access to them so that they of child-protection personnel. Such reconstructions may cannot be treated as witnesses to their abuse or neglect. They may in reaction withdraw from events or 3. Adapt all support avenues to the needs of take flight in order to somehow escape the existing con- children and adolescents flicts in their familial environment or in secondary fields Only in the last decades has the field of child protection of socialization.

This is an important prerequisite to including port system of their own accord. Hotlines as well as emer- children and adolescents in child-protection measures. Unfortunately, only a small day seminar in which basic human as well as child-wel- percentage of the children and adolescents in need actu- fare rights are discussed using case examples, short arti- ally utilize these services. Further practical tion to child protection prepared by the Open University experiments could provide impetus in this regard. Create a child- and adolescent-friendly at- 2.

Reflect on your own experiences when you mosphere were a child Open access to assistance can be realized in case-based Critical, particularly psychoanalytical works have made child protection only by ensuring a setting appropriate us aware of the fact that risks of endangerment to child to children and adolescents.

Such a framework and dealing with. Newcomers to the pro- to include participation research and the study of the de- fession, on the other hand, must often first learn how best velopment, situation and perspective of abused children to approach children and adolescents by taking seminars and adolescents. This path could provide important impetus for 5. Make contact with children and adolescents; quality development in child-protection work. Allow children and adolescents to participate tradition of not just observing children and adolescents, in the planning of an intervention and in the but also of coming directly into contact with them and further course of the assistance measure speaking with them.

Child-protection practices have A number of experiences already exist in this respect, only partially utilized these experiences, in particular in particularly in the context of residential care. However, conjunction with cases involving sexual abuse. For this they must be adapted and further expanded explicitly reason, it is important that child protection make new for the everyday practice of child protection.

In planning initiatives: by preparing an overview of those methods meetings a lot is discussed about children and adolescents that have proved to be successful for coming into con- even when they are physically present , but much too tact and speaking directly with children and adolescents little is discussed with children and adolescents. Here it during conflict and crisis situations; by critically looking would be appropriate to use a double setting i. There is presently the empirical research on children and adolescents, with no quality standard for this.

Evaluate together with the children and In addition, it would be helpful to evaluate experiences adolescents the results of the intervention from actual practice concerning how to set up and main- process tain dialogues with children and adolescents, in the form The same is true for the participation of children in the of so-called case laboratories. There is an urgent need to evaluation of the intervention processes in child protec- develop and make available a methodological handbook, tion cf. Regard the participation of children and ado- last few years to get children and above all adolescents lescents as a key management task involved in the reconstruction of their own life stories.

As important as the professional specialists are in the Such methods are only just beginning to take hold in casework of child protection, their supervisors are just child protection. Here one could refer to the many meth- as important, and without their initiative no office can ods available from child and adolescent psychotherapy, succeed in changing the emphasis from the adults to the in particular ethnographic research approaches using children and adolescents. Redirecting the emphasis and cameras which are already being employed in child day- appealing to everyone involved to view the children and care cf.

There is no need to re invent the methods necessary to this end — they only need be implemented in due time, e. Here, too, there are presently no quality standards. Implement the study of the participation of children and adolescents in child protection in academic studies and further education and training This demand can be carried out immediately: All of the other nine suggested levels of participation should be in- cluded in the basic study of child protection as well as in all forms of continuing education — not the least in the qualification of experienced specialists in child protec- tion.

New curriculum concepts should be developed in the form of an expertise outlining new approaches. It would be better if ing the role of the participation of children and ado- there were more openness toward the potential that lescents which have emerged from the results of our children and adolescents possess in such situations — it literature review as well as our own empirical stud- would certainly help to implement participation pro- ies. We sketch a possible research project that could cesses in practice and to further the inclusion of chil- contribute to the clarification of the problem of how dren and adolescents in research on child protection, a abused and neglected children and adolescents, espe- fallow field to date.

Reciprocal Our literature analysis shows that the voice of children Dialogues in Participation Discourses and adolescents rarely appears in research, particularly Our literature review has shown that much research on if they are endangered or have already been abused and the participation of children and adolescents is con- neglected. In addition, in most researches, when they cerned with isolated questions with little or no con- are allowed to speak, their utterances are generally be- nection to each other.

The answers to these questions ing passed on by adults. Only in few instances were remain specific only to a particular field and are not the children directly included and taken seriously as brought together with the data collected in other areas. For this reason a growing num- This is true also of Germany, where child protection ber of researchers have suggested that future research from the perspective of participation is still seen if at with or about children be done in a manner that the all as an isolated concern and is not integrated into children and adolescents are given the possibility of existing central conceptual approaches cf.

A dialogue between the various circumstances cf. Uprichard, New research researchers on participation from different countries approaches of this nature have now been developed, and disciplines social work, healthcare, education inspired by methods drawn from anthropological and has yet to commence.

They are included in the preparation concerned with the participation of children and ado- of the empirical instruments such as questionnaires lescents be combined in a cross-border effort. Hinton as well as in the construction of empirical research looked first at the ideas of teachers from Nicaragua methods that are appropriate for understanding their and England about the possibilities and difficulties world and that allow children and adolescents to study of the participation of children to show how much and query each other cf.

Niuwenhuys, These we could learn by merging the different perspectives studies show that it is indeed possible to include chil- in understanding the problem. In Nicaragua, for ex- dren in the research process — even when they are ample, much more trust is put in the abilities of chil- endangered or have been or are being abused or ne- dren and adolescents to achieve participation, whereas glected. It is also recognized. Javeau , p. Punch suggests Instead, allowing children and adolescents to partic- something similar, namely that the research methods ipate in the entire intervention process leads to very not be adapted solely to the age of the children.

Re- adept anamnestic and diagnostic constructions as well search with children and adolescents belongs in a con- as to successful courses of action, as a number of new- tinuum up to and including research concerned with er participation evaluation projects have revealed cf. But the goal is also to allow late the methods in order to get closer to the reality of children to participate in the construction of their children and adolescents and to grasp the context of own childhood through participation in research.


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Children and adolescents are reduced to play- ensure their participation? How do they The optimal research setting would be four local judge the role of such autobiographical reflections child-protection systems with different forms child on the performance of their professional tasks? How can access to the child protection service sys- cities and counties in Germany and perhaps also, in tem best be set up for children and adolescents? This would to be effective in practice? How can child- and adolescent-appropriate set- participation caseworkers, supervisors, children, ado- tings be created and employed?

Which approaches lescents and parents. How can the specialists in child protection best 3 Design and Methods make contact with children and adolescents? How The first step is to explore the fundamental questions can they get into a conversation and enter a dia- for the research study together with selected specialists logue with them?

How can they best summarize from child protection, the affected children and ado- their experiences from the encounters they had lescents, and the experienced researchers in the field with children and adolescents? What do they em- of participation,. The next step would be to draw up a phasize in their reports? To what extent are children and adolescents invit- velop an appropriate research design permitting self-, ed during child-protection processes to describe other- and joint observations for the investigation in their own development, situation and perspective the four selected research fields that are characterized and then, together with the professional personnel by a multilateral structure namely, of children, ado- or other family members, to reflect on this?

What lescents and caseworkers as well as perhaps other fam- approaches have proved to be advantageous in this ily members. The ethnographically oriented data collection 7. To what extent — and with what result — have chil- should combine participant observations as well as dren and adolescents been included in the planning different interview methods and should allow for stage as well as in the further course of a child-pro- group-based feedback loops on the part of the research tection processes?

The study should at least have a time frame 8. How are children and adolescents participating in of two years so that it would be possible to evaluate the the evaluation of the helping process in child pro- courses and results of the helping process. What approaches have proved to be ad- vantageous in this regard? Do local child protection systems recognize the A researcher should be employed for each of the four participation of children and adolescents as a lead- research fields for a period of two years, carrying out ership task or is this only marginally or never the the research for the most part directly on-site but also case and what approaches have proved to be suc- at the participating research institution, at least during cessful in this context?

What role does the subject of participation of For the management of this project at least two ex- children and adolescents in child protection play perienced social scientists each with a half-time post in academic studies and in further education and will be necessary. The project should take at least 42 training of professionals in this field? And what months 3. Besides tion programs for the professional personnel in the usual material expenses there would be travel and child protection?

Should an international com- parison be carried out, for example, with partners in France, England, Norway or Finland, then the associ- ated costs would have to be provided by the respective country or applied for in the context of the European Research Promotion Programs. Partizipation in der Kinder- und Jugendhilfe. Kinder und B Jugendbericht Ed. Dossier: Les No. Baistow, Karen : Liberation and regulation? In: Critical Social schutz im Kinderschutz. In: Forum der Kinder- Policy, 42, 34— Zur Konstruktion von needs.

In: Horwath, Jan Ed. Agency in amtlichen Entscheidungsprozessen. Eisentraut, Steffen Hrsg. Weinheim und Basel: Beltz Juventa, S. In: Informations sociales, Nr. Frankfurt am Kinderschutz. Zur Konstruktion von Hand- Main: Suhrkamp. In: sozial- magazin. Berlin: Berlin Verlag. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp. Partizipation von Kindern und Jugendlichen. Paris: Dunod. Wochenschau Verlag.