Gramsci and the Italian Road to Socialist Modernity. Fascist Modernity. After Modernity? Nationhood in the Post-Cold War Era. Back Matter Pages About this book Introduction This book argues that Italy represents a privileged entry point into the comparative analysis of ideologies and experiences of modernity. The book compares how thinkers and politicians belonging to different ideological clusters - Liberalism, Communism, Fascism, Chistian Democracy - came to formulate multiple and often antagonistic visions of Italy's road to the modern.
By revisiting Italian political history from the late nineteenth century until the present with a focus on transition periods, Italian Modernities explores how competing historical narratives influenced shifting understandings of Italian nationhood, thus foregrounding the active role of memory politics in the formulation of multiple modernities.
Italy Italian studies memory politics modernity nationhood democracy liminality political history transition Communism Fascism Liberalism. Native in : Italian. Send email. More actions PayPal accepted. News and analytics site PolyMic compiled a group of studies that indicate drummers are not only generally smarter than their bandmates, they actually make everyone around them smarter too. The research suggests that drummers have innate problem-solving skills and a positive impact on communities.
Seems using all the various parts of a drum kit to keep one steady beat is actually an expression of intrinsic problem-solving abilities. Furthermore, other studies show that rhythmic music can actually make other people smarter. A University of Washington psychology professor found that his students got higher scores after undergoing rhythmic light and sound therapy.
A University of Texas Medical Branch researcher using the same method on elementary and middle school boys with ADD noted an effect comparable to Ritalin. It gets even crazier, and more primordial, with reports suggesting drumming played a role in our own civilization. The researchers extrapolated that this rhythmic euphoria may have been pivotal in mankind establishing communities and society. Essentially, drum circles were the very foundation that made human society possible.
To boil it all down, drummers are smarter than you, more in-tune with nature than you, and are the whole reason you and I have a society in which to mock drummers in the first place. Translation - Italian Fin troppo spesso i batteristi sono stati denigrati. Secondo la scienza, tuttavia, i batteristi non sono degli idioti primitivi come gli umoristi ci hanno fatto credere. I ricercatori del Karolinska Institutet di Stoccolma hanno scoperto che, dopo aver suonato una serie di tempi, i batteristi che avevano il ritmo migliore hanno ottenuto un punteggio migliore su una prova di intelligenza di 60 domande.
Un ricercatore dell'University of Texas Medical Branch, usando lo stesso metodo su ragazzi delle scuole elementari e medie con il disturbo da deficit dell'attenzione, ha osservato un effetto paragonabile al Ritalin. Dei cervelloni di Harvard hanno scoperto che l'orologio interno del batterista non si muove in modo lineare come un vero e proprio orologio, ma piuttosto a ondate.
Questo pattern ritmico dal movimento ondulatorio si ritrova nelle onde cerebrali umane, nel battito cardiaco durante il sonno e negli impulsi nervosi presenti nelle orecchie dei felini. English to Italian: 6 Ways running improves your health www. Studies have shown that running can help prevent obesity, type 2 diabetes, heart disease, high blood pressure, stroke, some cancers, and a host of other unpleasant conditions. Running makes you happier. And even on those days when you have to force yourself out the door, exercise still protects you against anxiety and depression, studies have shown.
A study in the Journal of Adolescent Health proved that just 30 minutes of running during the week for three weeks boosted sleep quality, mood, and concentration during the day. Well, apparently, it actually is pretty similar. A study in Physiological Behavior showed that running causes the same kind of neurochemical adaptations in brain reward pathways that also are shared by addictive drugs. Running helps you get skinnier.
The bonus is that when you exercise, the burn continues after you stop. Scientists call this EPOC, which stands for excess post oxygen consumption. Running strengthens your knees and your other joints and bones, too. In fact, studies show that running improves knee health, according to Boston University researcher David Felson in an interview with National Public Radio.
Running will keep you sharper, even as you age. Studies consistently found that fitter older adults scored better in mental tests than their unfit peers. Running reduces your risk of cancer. A vast review of epidemiological studies in the Journal of Nutrition showed that regular exercise is associated with a lower risk of certain cancers. Want to know more about this? Read first-hand accounts of this and see our full cancer issue here. Running adds years to your life. Studies show that when different types of people started exercising, they lived longer.
Smokers added 4. Cancer survivors extended their lives by 5. Those with heart disease gained 4. Ecco come: 1. La corsa diminuisce il rischio di cancro. Probabilmente la corsa non cura il cancro, ma ci sono numerose prove che dimostrano che aiuta a prevenirlo. I fumatori hanno aggiunto 4. Anche se stai ancora fumando, guadagnerai 2. I sopravvissuti al cancro hanno allungato la loro vita di 5. Quelli con problemi di cuore hanno guadagnato 4. Inizierei la visita facendo colazione al parco di Villa Borghese.
Hai bisogno di questo momento di pace prima della tua giornata piena di cose da fare! Goditi la tua colazione tradizionale all'italiana "cappuccino e cornetto" e poi inizia la tua visita andando al Museo della Galleria Borghese. Esso contiene un grandissimo numero di opere d'arte. Qui troverai negozi dai marchi famosi e bellissime antiche costruzioni da ammirare.
Ma non fermarti ad ammirare troppo a lungo, hai una lunga giornata che ti aspetta! Probabilmente ora sarai un po' affamato e vorrai pranzare al volo. Non troverai negozi qui ora, ma in passato era pieno. A sinistra e a destra puoi ancora ammirare le rovine dei tribunali, i mercati, i templi e le terme che furono costruiti tra il 46 a.
Si eregge maestoso e imponente di fronte a te anche se sono nata a Roma rimango impressionata ogni volta che lo vedo! Non puoi ripartire da Roma senza averlo visitato al suo interno, per cui mettiti in fila pazientemente. Fai una pausa qui, siediti sul prato e chiudi gli occhi Riesci a sentire il fragore della folla e i cavalli al galoppo? Deve essere stato assordante! Non devi far altro che camminare per i vicoli e goderti l'atmosfera, le bancarelle degli artigiani, gli spettacoli nelle piazze. Translation - English If you only had one day to spend in Rome, I would suggest that you rent a bike or a segway.
I would start the visit with having breakfast in Villa Borghese park. Imagine sitting on a table in that beautiful park without any noise around you but the tweets of the birds. You need this peaceful moment before your busy day! They have a large number of artwork. My favourite pieces are the Canova statues, which are more beautiful to see live than in art books! Then, you have to go across Villa Borghese again until you reach the Pincio terrace. Remember to toss a coin in the fountain and make a wish, dreams come true sometimes!
On both your left and your right, you can still admire the ruins of courts, markets, temples and baths which were built between 46 B. It stands majestic and stunning in front of you Even if I was born in Rome I still get impressed every time I look at it! Have a rest here, sit on the grass and close your eyes… Can you hear the din of the crowd and the horses galloping? It must have been thunderous! Ok, time to stand up now. If you survive, then cross the river and reach one of the most crowded and lively areas of the city: Trastevere.
Just walk through the alleys and join the atmosphere, the stands of the artisans, the shows in the squares. The Big Mama is an old venue in Rome where Blues and Jazz music are played and its stage has seen many musicians become famous. This is the most suitable ending of your day. Drums consist of a membrane also known as a skin stretched over an open-ended cylinder also known as a shell and struck with the band or a stick.
Some drums have a skin stretched over the bottom of the shell as well. Drums first appeared as far back as BC. Mesopotamian excavations unearthed small cylindrical drums dated BC. American Indians and the indigenous people of Peru, for example, used gourd and wooden constructed drums for their rituals, religious ceremonies, and various other aspects of their social life. Before the modern era, the various drum-related percussion instruments were often played by different people.
For example, the bass drum would be played by one musician with the cymbals and snare played by others. As music evolved, this became unwieldy and expensive. Various attempts were made to consolidate all these instruments so that they could all be played by just one person. The modern drum set-up evolved out of marching bands as well as the vaudeville and jazz eras. Experiments with various set-ups continued until the s when a dance band drummer named Ben Duncan and a few others settled on a standardized arrangement of one bass drum, a snare, a raised tom-tom and a floor tom-tom.
A typical kit is centered on the snare drum on which the player plays in time with the music. It has wires running across the skin stretched across the bottom of the drum, giving it a sharp sound that cuts through most other instrumentation. The snare is used in conjunction with the bass or kick drum, which sits on its side and is played with a food pedal. Kits will usually have one or more tom-toms of different diameters and depths, which are used to provide additional sounds.
Mounted toms sit atop the bass drum or on special stands. Floor toms have their own legs and stand on the floor. Drummers will use a variety of cymbals. Crash and ride cymbals of various sizes, weights and materials are suspended from stands so they may ring freely. Hi-hats which first appeared in about consist of two cymbals sitting on top of each other and are used along with the snare and the bass drum to provide the foundation of the beat.
Hi-hats sit in a special stand with a foot pedal that allows the drummer to separate and clash them together for rhythmic effect. Drums can be made from wood, metal and various synthetic materials such as fibreglass and acrylic in a variety of sizes and weights.
Each material and size comes with its own sonic properties. The sound of a drum can also be influenced by the thickness and material of the head. Tightening the head i. Tom-toms with heads on the underside can be tuned to create an even wider variety of sounds and tones. Other determining factors in the sound of its drum are the thickness, length and diameter of the shell.
I tamburi sono costituiti da una membrana nota anche come "pelle" tesa sopra un cilindro aperto noto anche come "fusto". Alcuni tamburi hanno anche una pelle sopra la parte inferiore del fusto. Degli scavi avvenuti in Mesopotamia hanno portato alla luce dei piccoli tamburi cilindrici datati A. Prima dell'era moderna, i vari strumenti a percussione legati alla batteria erano spesso suonati da persone diverse. Ad esempio, la grancassa veniva suonata da un musicista insieme ai piatti mentre il rullante era suonato da altri.
Vari tentativi sono stati fatti per mettere insieme tutti questi strumenti in modo che potessero essere suonati da una sola persona. Esperimenti con vari set-up continuarono fino al quando il batterista di un'orchestra di ballo, chiamato Ben Duncan e alcuni altri decisero un set up formato da una grancassa, un rullante, un tom-tom rialzato e un timpano. Un tipico kit si basa sul rullante sul quale il musicista suona a tempo di musica. Ha una cordiera metallica poggiata sulla pelle inferiore del rullante che provoca un suono acuto che si distingue dagli altri strumenti.
I tom sono montati sopra la gran cassa o sorretti da appositi stand. I timpani hanno propri supporti che poggiano direttamente a terra. I crash e i ride sono di varie grandezze, peso e materiale e poggiano su aste dove possono suonare liberamente. Gli altri fattori determinanti per il suono di una batteria sono la grandezza, lo spessore e il diametro dei fusti.
Being in the city, longing for the mountains, the spirit of mountains and the spirit of bluegrass in the Zen gardens. Here's the tune called "What's between Bluegrass and a Zen Garden". Guitar music Applause Thank you. I'm going to play one more tune here. This is not an anti-war statement, this is just my own personal fear.
I wrote this tune to try and deal with it. I hope it works for me and any of you who feel the same way. It's called "Senso Kowai". Guitar music Applause Translation - Italian In Giappone ogni cosa cambia ogni qualche centinaio di anni, ma alcune cose non cambiano mai. Suono di chitarra Applausi Grazie. Ho scritto questa canzone per cercare di affrontarla. Spero che funzioni sia per me sia per gli altri che si sentono come me. Si intitola: "Senso Kowai".
There is a special kind of memory that's supposed to keep plans like that in mind, and it's called working memory. It's a very useful kind of memory. You use it not only to remember plans and instructions, but you also use it to keep in mind relevant information when you solve problems. So it's very important for mathematical problem solving, and it is also closely related to attention. So one way to put that is you need to remember what to focus on. I'm going to illustrate that by testing your working memory here.
Your task here is to remember where this person is pointing so that you can point at the same boxes in the same order, OK? OK, now you're keeping information in working memory, four positions, so that you can do something based on that information, right? Easy enough. Let's have another one.
So the same task: remember where this person points. Any volunteers here, in the first row? That's a bit harder. This illustrates the key problem here, and the key problem is that working memory is limited. Capacity to store information is limited. If I were to test you, you would remember roughly seven items here. This has been termed "the magic number seven". It's thought to be a very important limit on information processing ability of the human brain.
But, some of you might remember eight, some of you might remember only six - so, that's normal - but when you get an unusually low working memory, you run into problems. Children with low working memory capacity, they have problems remembering instructions, what to do next, they are inattentive, they fail in mathematics, they struggle with reading comprehension. So I said, "We have a problem, and I think I have, a partial, at least, solution. One finding from our and others' research is that this is not a global problem all over the brain, but it seems to be restricted to a set of bottleneck areas in the brain and the connections between them.
Here seems to be that the processing ability of these regions is also constituting the limitations of working memory.
Competing Narratives of Nationhood
But on the other hand, we know that the brain is plastic. It can change with training. It can change with experience. For example, if you look at musicians, violinists, you see the brain areas controlling the fingers - they change as a result of practice. So why wouldn't you be able to change these regions as well? I teamed up with some computer game programmers to make a program where - a computer program where children could train working memory.
We want them to train on tasks similar to the one that I showed you here, to do that for at least 45 minutes - that's about how long That's again about as long as they could manage to do this. Using computer-game-like design made it slightly more motivating. We also could use the computer program to adapt the difficulty level, so it's close to the capacity limit. That's a similar principle to when you do physical training. It's when you're close to your limits that you can actually change.
Then, we wanted to test the effect of this and we did that in roughly the same way you go about when you want to try out a new drug. You have people randomized to either receiving the treatment - which is the working memory training in this study - or a placebo, which was a computer program where difficulty level was not adapted to the limit of the subjects. Then you have psychological tests, measuring working memory capacity of the children before and after. So this was a very simplistic idea. This was a neuroscientist stumbling into the field of working memory and treating working memory as a muscle, rather than some magical black box.
But it worked. When we looked at the test results, we could see that children doing the training, they have actually improved their working memory capacity by roughly 20 to 15 percent, and this has been replicated many times now. So the magic number seven isn't so magic, after all. And other people have also shown that you can measure strengthening of connectivity between these regions as a result of working memory training.
So we could show that indeed the brain is plastic. This is nice. We can push the limits. We can watch the changes that are happening in the brain. The third question is: does it matter? Does it matter for people in everyday life? One thing that does matter is remembering plans and instructions, and we and others have now actually measured how long instructions can a child keep in mind and perform accurately, and does it change, and it does.
So children going through the working memory training, they can now remember longer instructions. Another way to look at usefulness is actually asking parents and teachers about symptoms in everyday life, the behavior of the children in everyday life, about inattentiveness and if they can follow instructions. Here we are looking at 13 studies that did that. They get inattentive symptoms in the group doing the training and how that changes, and in the control group and how that changes, and then comparing them.
If there was no effect at all, you would see a little green dot precisely at the line here. But as you see, the green dots, they end up consistently to the left, meaning here that you have a reduction of inattention in the training.
And if you add this up, you can see that this reduction is around half a standard deviation, which is pretty good. We published the first working memory training study 12 years ago. Now there are more than a hundred studies that are published on different aspects of working memory training. We will know - we will continue to learn about how to do the working memory training, what's the most effective way to do this. But we already see that there is an effect, that it is useful in practice.
And now, we have more than 50 thousand children that have benefited from working memory training in more than 20 different countries. So the science tells us about the effects, but it's also interesting to hear from the children, and here are some comments. One says that, "Now I can remember what the teacher says. I could be looking for two days! Now I can find them at once", or, "I can sit and shut out the noise from around.
When I read, I can focus; before, I couldn't do that. Thank you. Applause Translation - Italian Sono sicuro che molti di voi conoscono bene la situazione in cui entri in una stanza, poi rimani in piedi di fronte al muro, e pensi, "Che dovevo fare qui? E' un tipo di memoria molto utile. La usi non solo per ricordare pensieri e istruzioni ma anche per tenere a mente informazioni importanti quando risolvi dei problemi. Ora ve lo dimostro testando la vostra memoria di lavoro.
Ok, ora state memorizzando 4 posizioni attraverso la memoria di lavoro, in modo da poter fare qualcosa basato su quest'informazione, giusto? Piuttosto facile. Proviamo con un altro. Lo stesso compito: ricordate dove indica questa persona. Qualche volontario, nella prima fila? Se dovessi testarvi, vi ricordereste 7 elementi a malapena.
Mi sono detto, "Abbiamo un problema, e penso di avere, almeno in parte, la soluzione. Per esempio, se osservi dei musicisti, dei violinisti, vedi le aree del cervello che controllano le dita, che cambiano con la pratica. Mi sono unito ad alcuni programmatori di videogiochi per creare un programma, un videogame, dove i bambini potessero allenare la memoria di lavoro. E' quando sei vicino al tuo limite che puoi effettivamente cambiare.
Era un'idea molto semplice. Questo era un ostacolo della neuroscienza nel campo della memoria di lavoro, trattare la memoria di lavoro come un muscolo, piuttosto che una sorta di magica scatola nera. Ma ha funzionato. Possiamo forzare i limiti. Possiamo osservare i cambiamenti che avvengono nel cervello. E' importante per le persone che vivono ogni giorno?
Qui vediamo 13 studi che lo hanno fatto. Prendono i sintomi di disattenzione nel gruppo di allenamento e come cambiano, e nel gruppo di verifica e come cambiano, e poi si paragonano. Se non ci fosse alcun effetto, vedresti un piccolo puntino verde esattamente su questa linea. Abbiamo pubblicato il primo studio sulla memoria del lavoro 12 anni fa. Uno dice: "Ora posso ricordare cosa dice la maestra. Cercavo per 2 giorni! Ora posso trovarle subito", oppure: "Posso sedermi e ignorare il rumore intorno.
Quando leggo, posso focalizzare; prima, non avrei potuto farlo". I'm 25 years old. I am the kind of speaker that speaks at a slow pace and deliberately. In November of , I found something on Wikipedia that changed my life. It was the words "selective mutism. It validated something I have been struggling with for years. More precisely, learning that I had this disorder motivated me to try to overcome it. Like me and others who didn't know about this disorder, it also motivated me to spread awareness.
Selective mutism had a huge impact on my life. I suffered with this condition from childhood to adolescence and into adulthood. Unlike most babies, I was a quiet one. I didn't make babbling noises, and I didn't cry for hunger. My parents enrolled me in physical, occupational, and speech therapy, but nothing seemed to make a difference. I taught myself how to crawl. I had my favorite toy and blanket across the room, and it wasn't too much later that I learned to walk at a very slow pace.
At age two, I still wasn't talking. If I wanted something, I would grunt and point. I didn't say a single word until I was about three or four years old. I also had a separation anxiety that left me clinging onto my mom. She even spoke for me. By the time I was five, I was a chatterbox.
Laughter I asked a lot of questions and wouldn't stop to listen to the answers. Laughter It was like I was starving for social interaction, because outside of home, such as school, I remained mute. My throat closed up, and my lips were sealed shut. A teacher would ask me a question, and I stared up at her, blinking, with watery eyes. There was this silent awkwardness between us. There was a lot of pressure on me.
I would look down at my desk until she told me she would come back to me later and moved on to the next kid. Only then did I feel like I could suddenly breathe. I never understood why I couldn't talk and others could. My parents and teacher didn't know the reason why either. The teacher assumed I might be autistic. My doctor evaluated me for autism, but he didn't think I was autistic. I went to play therapy, but there was the expectation that it didn't go so well. They thought I was choosing not to speak or listen, or pretending to act helpless.
I was labeled as "shy". My anxiety put me behind in my education. From kindergarten, all the way to 12th grade, I had an Individual Educational Plan, and in it, I was marked down as having a learning disability. I always thought, if it wasn't for the anxiety, I would've done well in school. I knew that I was very smart. However, I had to go to special education to catch up with my peers. It hurt me, more than it helped me, because it affected how I felt or see myself.
It lowered my self-esteem. After I heard from others how shy I was, I began to believe that shyness was part of my personality, and I couldn't change it. The anxiety developed into other problems, such as a health anxiety, and perfectionism. I wouldn't raise my hand for fear of being wrong. I figured what I had was beyond shyness. I wondered what I had been struggling with. And I waited for somebody to help me, but nobody bothered. So my anxiety and depression got worse, isolating myself from everyone else.
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I began to have panic attacks, and even worse, thoughts of death. A year ago, I recovered from my darkest days. I made a commitment to myself that I would not give up. Selective mutism wasn't a curse but a gift. I joined Toastmasters. Laughter Applause It showed me the light and hope for the future. I stumbled a couple of times, but I refused to let it pull me back into the dark.
Toastmasters built my strength and confidence. I became a counselor at the Youth Playhouse Theater. I enrolled in college. Since the first day of school, I've raised my hand nearly every day. Laughter Applause Right now, I am most proud of having this opportunity, standing here before you, giving a TEDx talk.
There are new challenges to face, like becoming a librarian and a bestselling author. Laughter And I will cross those paths as they come. What I am learning is that life goes at its own pace, at its own time, and in its own way. My life started out very slow, very unsure, very silent. What I didn't realize is that for me, my life was meant to happen in small increments, unhurried and unrushed.
And in a world that's impatient to move and go, it's easy to get overlooked, because there's a lot of tedium and growing at a measured, steady pace. A flower doesn't flourish overnight. It doesn't go from bud to blossom in one gigantic burst. It takes patience, time, and a whole lot of precious tedium. The real magic is in the waiting to unfurl, unfold, and fully bloom into something magnificently and beautifully wondrous. Nel novembre del , Ho trovato qualcosa su Wikipedia che ha cambiato la mia vita. Erano le parole "mutismo selettivo".
Ha confermato qualcosa con cui ho combattuto per anni. Come me e altri che non sapevano di questo disturbo, mi ha motivato a diffonderne la consapevolezza. Il mutismo selettivo ha avuto un enorme impatto sulla mia vita. A differenza di molti bambini io ero una tranquilla. Non facevo versi, e non piangevo per la fame. I miei genitori mi hanno fatto fare terapia fisica, occupazionale e del lunguaggio, ma niente sembrava che facesse differenza. Ho imparato da sola a gattonare. Avevo il mio giocattolo preferito e la coperta dall'altra parte della stanza e non molto tempo dopo ho imparato a camminare molto lentamente.
A due anni ancora non parlavo. Se volevo qualcosa, grugnivo e indicavo. Soffrivo anche l'ansia da separazione che mi faceva aggrappare a mia madre. Lei parlava persino al posto mio. Entro i 5 anni, ero diventata una chiaccherona. Risate Ho fatto moltissime domande e non smettevo di ascoltare le risposte. La mia gola si serrava, e le mie labbra erano sigillate. Un insegnante mi faceva una domanda, ed io stavo davanti a lei, guardandola con gli occhi lucidi. C'era questo silenzio imbarazzante. E un sacco di pressione su di me. Solo allora potevo finalmente respirare.
Nemmeno i miei genitori e l'insegnante sapevano il motivo. L'insegnante credeva fossi autistica. Pensavano che stessi scegliendo di non parlare o ascoltare, o fare finta di essere incapace. Ero etichettata come "timida". La mia ansia mi ha lasciato indietro nell'educazione. Dalla prima elementare, fino al liceo, ho avuto un programma di educazione personale, e in questo ero annotata per avere un disturbo di apprendimento.
Ho sempre pensato, se non fosse stato per l'ansia, Avrei fatto bene a scuola. Sapevo di essere molto intelligente. In ogni modo, dovevo avere un'educazione speciale per raggiungere i miei pari. Ha abbassato la mia autostima. L'ansia ha sviluppato altri problemi, come l'ansia della salute e il perfezionismo. Non alzavo la mia mano per paura di sbagliare.
Come sono cresciuta, ho iniziato a soffrire di agorafobia, disturbi ossessivi compulsivi e depressione clinica. Ho pensato che quello che avevo andasse oltre la timidezza. Mi sono domandata con che cosa stessi combattendo.
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E ho aspettato che qualcuno mi aiutasse, ma nessuno si disturbava a farlo. Ho iniziato ad avere attacchi di panico, e, ancora peggio, pensieri di morte. Un anno fa, mi sono ripresa da quei giorni bui. Ho fatto una promessa a me stessa che non mi sarei arresa. Il mutismo selettivo non era una maledizione, ma un regalo.
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Ho partecipato a Toastmasters. Risate Applausi Toastmasters mi ha mostrato la luce e la speranza per il futuro. Ho esitato un paio di volte, ma mi sono rifiutata di farmi trascinare indietro nel buio. Toastmasters ha sviluppato la mia forza e confidenza. Sono diventata una consulente al Youth Playhouse Theater. Sono entrata al college. Fin dal primo giorno di scuola, ho alzato la mano quasi ogni giorno.
Ci sono nuove sfide da affrontare, come diventare una bibliotecaria e un'autrice di bestseller. Un fiore non sboccia in una notte. Non diventa da bocciolo a fiore all'improvviso. Ci vuole pazienza, tempo, e tantissima preziosa noia. Applausi English to Italian: Can a computer write poetry? This is a provocative question.
You think about it for a minute, and you suddenly have a bunch of other questions like: What is a computer? What is poetry? What is creativity? But these are questions that people spend their entire lifetime trying to answer, not in a single TED Talk. So we're going to have to try a different approach.
So up here, we have two poems. One of them is written by a human, and the other one's written by a computer. I'm going to ask you to tell me which one's which.
Sorry we still under construction...
You're not going to have long to read because we haven't got long to do this speech. Have a go, start reading. Hands up if you think Poem 1 was written by a human. OK, most of you. Hands up if you think Poem 2 was written by a human. Very brave of you, because the first one was written by the human poet William Blake.
The second one was written by an algorithm that took all the language from my Facebook feed on one day and then regenerated it algorithmically, according to methods that I'll describe a little bit later on. But most of you got that right, it's probably a little bit easy. So let's try another test. Again, you haven't got ages to read this, so just trust your gut. Poem 1: A lion roars and a dog barks. Poem 2: Oh! So if you think the first poem was written by a human, put your hand up. And if you think the second poem was written by a human, put your hand up.
It was much harder. The answer is, the first poem was generated by an algorithm called Racter, that was created back in the s, and the second poem was written by a guy called Frank O'Hara, who happens to be one of my favorite human poets. Laughter So what we've just done now is a Turing test for poetry. The Turing test was first proposed by this guy, Alan Turing, in , in order to answer the question, can computers think?
Alan Turing believed that if a computer was able to have a to have a text-based conversation with a human, with such proficiency such that the human couldn't tell whether they are talking to a computer or a human, then the computer can be said to have intelligence. So in , my friend Benjamin Laird and I, we created a Turing test for poetry online. It's called bot or not, and you can go and play it for yourselves. But basically, it's the game we just played. You're presented with a poem, you don't know whether it was written by a human or a computer and you have to guess. So thousands and thousands of people have taken this test online, so we have results.
And what are the results? Well, Turing said that if a computer could fool a human 30 percent of the time that it was a human, then it passes the Turing test for intelligence. We have poems on the bot or not database that have fooled 65 percent of human readers into thinking it was written by a human.
So, I think we have an answer to our question. According to the logic of the Turing test, can a computer write poetry? Well, yes, absolutely it can. But if you're feeling a little bit uncomfortable with this answer, that's OK. If you're having a bunch of gut reactions to it, that's also okay because this isn't the end of the story.
Let's play our third and final test. Again, you're going to have to read and tell me which you think is human. Poem 1: Red flags the reason for pretty flags. So hands up if you think Poem 1 was written by a human. Whoa, that's a lot more people. So you'd be surprised to find that Poem 1 was written by the very human poet Gertrude Stein. Now before we go on, let me describe very quickly and simply, how RKCP works.
So RKCP is an algorithm designed by Ray Kurzweil, who's a director of engineering at Google and a firm believer in artificial intelligence. So, you give RKCP a source text, it analyzes the source text in order to find out how it uses language, and then it regenerates language that emulates that first text. So in the poem we just saw before, Poem 2, the one that you all thought was human, it was fed a bunch of poems by a poet called Emily Dickinson and looked at the way she used language, learned the model, and then it regenerated a model according to that same structure.
But the important thing to know about RKCP is that it doesn't know the meaning of the words it's using. The language is just raw material, it could be Chinese, it could be in Swedish, it could be the collected language from your Facebook feed for one day. It's just raw material. And nevertheless, it's able to create a poem that seems more human than Gertrude Stein's poem, and Gertrude Stein is a human.
So what we've done here is, more or less, a reverse Turing test. So Gertrude Stein, who's a human, is able to write a poem that fools a majority of human judges into thinking that it was written by a computer. Therefore, according to the logic of the reverse Turing test, Gertrude Stein is a computer.
Laughter Feeling confused? I think that's fair enough. So far we've had humans that write like humans, we have computers that write like computers, we have computers that write like humans, but we also have, perhaps most confusingly, humans that write like computers.
So what do we take from all of this? Do we take that William Blake is somehow more of a human than Gertrude Stein? Or that Gertrude Stein is more of a computer than William Blake? Laughter These are questions I've been asking myself for around two years now, and I don't have any answers. But what I do have are a bunch of insights about our relationship with technology. So my first insight is that, for some reason, we associate poetry with being human.
So that when we ask, "Can a computer write poetry? How do we say who or what can be part of this category? I also believe that Alan Turing understood this, and that when he devised his test back in , he was doing it as a philosophical provocation. So my second insight is that, when we take the Turing test for poetry, we're not really testing the capacity of the computers because poetry-generating algorithms, they're pretty simple and have existed, more or less, since the s.
What we are doing with the Turing test for poetry, rather, is collecting opinions about what constitutes humanness. So, what I've figured out, we've seen this when earlier today, we saw that William Blake is more of a human than Gertrude Stein. Of course, this doesn't mean that William Blake was actually more human or that Gertrude Stein was more of a computer. It simply means that the category of the human is unstable.
This has led me to understand that the human is not a cold, hard fact. Rather, it is something that's constructed with our opinions and something that changes over time. That is to say, the category of the human is unstable. So my final insight is that the computer, more or less, works like a mirror that reflects any idea of a human that we show it.
We show it Emily Dickinson, it gives Emily Dickinson back to us. We show it William Blake, that's what it reflects back to us. We show it Gertrude Stein, what we get back is Gertrude Stein. More than any other bit of technology, the computer is a mirror that reflects any idea of the human we teach it. So I'm sure a lot of you have been hearing a lot about artificial intelligence recently. And much of the conversation is kind of, Can we build it?
Can we build an intelligent computer? Can we build a creative computer? What we seem to be asking over and over is can we build a human-like computer? But what we've seen just now is that the human is not a scientific fact, that it's an ever-shifting, concatenating idea and one that changes over time. So that when we begin to grapple with the ideas of artificial intelligence in the future, we shouldn't only be asking ourselves, "Can we build it? Ma queste sono domande alle quali le persone dedicano tutta la loro vita per rispondere, non un singolo TED Talk.
Quindi dobbiamo provare in un altro modo. Qui sopra abbiamo due poesie. Dovrete dirmi quale appartiene all'uno e all'altro. Alzate le mani se pensate che la poesia 1 sia stata scritta da un essere umano. Ok, la maggior parte di voi. Alzate le mani se pensate che la poesia 2 sia stata scritta da un umano. La maggior parte di voi ha indovinato, forse era troppo facile. Proviamo con un altro test. Poesia 2: Oh! Siete veramente belli! Se pensate che la prima poesia sia stata scritta da un essere umano, alzate la mano.
Ok Se pensate che la seconda poesia sia stata scritta da un essere umano, alzate la mano. Nel io e il mio amico Benjamin Laird abbiamo creato un Turing test on line per la poesia. Si chiama "bot o no", lo puoi vedere e fare per conto tuo. Ti viene mostrata una poesia, tu non sai se sia stata scritta da un essere umano o un computer e devi indovinare.
Centinaia e centinaia di persone hanno fatto questo test on line, di cui abbiamo i risultati. Quali sono i risultati? Quindi abbiamo una risposta alla nostra domanda. Facciamo il terzo e ultimo test. Di nuovo, dovrete leggere e dirmi quale ritenete essere umano. Poesia 1: Bandiere rosse la ragione di belle bandiere. Alzi la mano chi pensa che la poesia 1 sia stata scritta da un essere umano.
Alzi la mano chi pensa che la poesia 2 sia stata scritta da un essere umano. Prima che vada avanti, lasciate che vi descriva brevemente come funziona RKCP. Quindi, si sottopone a RKCP un testo, questo lo analizza per capire come viene usato il linguaggio, e poi ricrea un linguaggio che copia il precedente. La poesia che abbiamo visto prima, la poesia 2, che tutti pensavate fosse umana, ha preso un gruppo di poesie della poetessa Emily Dickinson, ha osservato il modo in cui ha usato il linguaggio, ha imparato il modello, e poi ha ricreato un modello secondo la stessa struttura.
E' solo materiale grezzo. Risate Siete confusi? Mi sembra giusto. Quindi cosa deduciamo da tutto questo? Risate Queste sono domande che mi sono fatto per quasi due anni ormai, e non ho ancora la risposta. Quello che ho sono parecchie idee sulla nostra relazione con la tecnologia. Come facciamo a dire chi o cosa fa parte di questa categoria? Credo anche che Alan Turing lo abbia capito, e quando aveva ideato il suo test nel , stava lanciando una provocazione filosofica.
Noi gli mostriamo Emily Dickinson, lui ci restituisce Emily Dickinson. Noi gli mostriamo William Blake, lui ce lo riflette. Sono sicuro che molti di voi hanno sentito parlare molto di intelligenza artificiale recentemente. E la maggior parte della questione era, Possiamo costruirla? Possiamo costruire un computer intelligente? Possiamo costruire un computer creativo? My name is Maria Sundin, and I'm an astrophysicist. There are lots of connections between astrophysics and water, but today, I want to tell you about why the Earth has water at all, and that it's not so easy to find another planet if we should mess up this too badly.
So I will talk about water on other planets in our Solar System, and the search for planets around other stars.
Are there other terrestrial worlds out there? Are there other worlds like our planet? Well, the history of water is It started with the Big Bang. Hydrogen has been around for a long time. Hydrogen is one of the components of water. The other component is oxygen. We breathe oxygen, and I don't know if you've thought so much about where the oxygen comes from, but oxygen is created in the interior of stars. And when the stars explode, this oxygen is spread into the Universe.
On this picture you see an exploding star. Several stars had to explode before our Sun was created.